Irrigation in Iraq in the late Ottoman era in the light of British reports The report of Sir George Buchanan model ((historical study))

RaghadFalah AbdulKazem Al Khazraji

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

The history of Iraq's economic and modern and contemporary modern, one of the most important subjects that need to study a large scientific, historians rarely touched on this history, which undoubtedly helps to understand more accurately and deeply to understand the country's political events and economic and social development, and irrigation in Iraq in the late Ottoman era one Of the topics of this history, which did not get the attention of many researchers, especially in the British reports and hence came the choice of the subject of research.
The two rivers (Tigris and Euphrates) have the advantage of carrying silt, which means that the surface of the country where they flowed gradually increased due to silt deposited when the water overflows on land, has got the largest deposits near land, and the high flow of the river above the level of the surrounding ground, The two rivers are significantly lower for the lowest level of the earth and this is different from other rivers of the same species as the Yellow River in Chinasam
The engineering survey of the country and the rivers is a necessary condition before spending money on investment projects. When Sir William Wilcox's survey was of great value and importance, but the survey was carried out in the most difficult and demanding circumstances, it was criticized by Sir George Buchanan for all the work