2018, Volume 1, Issue 29, Pages 327-356
AbstractThe British orientalist Dwight M. Donaldson consider one of whom compose a serious study about the Twelve Imams (peace be upon them) and the history of Shiism and his book that entitled (the Shiite Religion) consider one of the early Orientalist and general studies about life history and biography of Twelve Imams (peace be upon them) and one of the studies in the historical geographiy of their shrines in the first half of the twentieth century. He approached in the last chapters of his book to the history of Shiism in the fourth century A.H. and definitly he studied the Bouids state Then he talked about beginning of Hadith collecting by shia Then he approached quickly to history of the theological knowledges and Ijtihad near the Imamiyahshia from the fall of the Bouids state until the Safavid period. Then he wrote on parts of shia ideology like al-Ismah, al-Shafa'a, … anf finally he talked about some of other shiagroupes like Ismailiyah, Baabism and Baha'i.
And about the life and biography of Imam Ali (peace be upon him) he has been allocated four chapters for this purpose, and he described his holy tomb in Najaf in Chapter five, and we can appended this chapter to those that discussed everything related about Imam Ali's life and biography.
In this research, we decided criticze his most prominent statements in chapter three, which is the relation between Imam Ali (p.b.u.h.) and Ms. Ayesha the wife of the Prophet (peace be upon him and his Descendants) and what were marred of dispute. We also discussed what he claimed that Imam Ali (p.b.u.h.) was not know what he do when lined the two armies in al-Jamal war. And that the killers of Uthman were in his army, perhaps he (p.b.u.h.) is one of them, according to Donaldson's claim, and we will see how he (p.b.u.h.) carried the burden of climbing Othman's house, and he killed by the audience of companions and the influential people (ahlul-hilliwal-aqd) in the various Islamic cities who refuse his arbitrary policies against their interests and a curruptgroupe of governors that he had sent to rule on their cities, most of them were his relatives. Briefly, after responding to Donaldson's statements, we will see how this orientalist violates the truth and resorted to falsehoods towards the bright biography of Imam Ali (peace be upon him), depending on the reports of his Umayyad and Abbasid enemies, who transferred it in the sources
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