2018, Volume 1, Issue 17, Pages 135-162
AbstractYathreb had distinguished with a special position in Hijaz in the Pre- Islamic era because it is an agricultural area attracted emigrations from different places ; the oppressed Jewish in Palestine and the tribes of Oas and Khazraj who emigrated from Yemen after the callable of the dam of Ma`ereb , the Jewish occupied the first place on the economic levels while the Arab came in the second place which resulted in a conflict ended with the Arab domination.
The Jewish played a great role in stir up the hatred and enmity among Arabs so many wars started between the Oas and Khazraj but the rise of Islam and Prophet Mohammed had made Yathreb as a place of the Islamic state where it welcomed the Prophet and the emigrants ( Mohajerein ) hence it was called Al- Madeenah Al- Monawarah (the Enlightened City )and became the capital of the Islamic state .
Had put forward a series of legislations that organized the individual and the society life , and the Prophet`s procedures in Al- Madeenah affected the whole society :- Al- Mo`akhaa principle which the Prophet had applied between the emigrants and the supporters (Mohajerein and Ansaar) supported their religious cohesion , replaced ( Rabetat Al- Hilf ) which the Arab Had followed in the Pre- Islamic era and united the supporters(Ansaar) who were the landlord and the newcomers who were the emigrants of Mecca . Al-Saheefah (the Leaf ) represented a constitution for the Muslims organized their relations with each other gathered them under one leadership which is the Prophet. For the Muslim `s relations with the Jewish , Al-Saheefah had organized them but the Jewish had betrayed the Muslim which made the Prophet send them out of Al- Madeenah , the Prophet depended on efficiency to select the waly and after his death the Muslims divided into currents that had debates upon authority .
Due to the alliance of Abu –Baker ,Omer bin Al- Khatab and Abu Obidah and after a prolong arguments and debates between the (Mohajerein and Ansaar) Quraysh wined . The Caliphate faced the apostasy movements that includes Al jazirah Parts with a group of people who were un settled with their religion and whom the Caliphate face carefully ; while Abu –Baker prevented their participation in the Islamic conquests , Omer bin Al- Khatab allowed their participation without being a leadership and Othman had allowed their reuniting with the society .
The Islamic conquests consequences reflected on the Islamic society ;the female slave became within most of the Arab houses where they carried their countries` civilizations and customs and became mothers of Arab sons , the slaves were depended on in all the crafts that the Arab refused them .The problem of the great numbers of the fighters who leaved their family to fight in far fronts had raised, their wives or women were subjected to the temptation danger . For the economic aspects the Caliphate took a series of the economic procedures that affected the civil aspects , hence the first emigrants, Ansaar and the Prophet`s relatives had the priorities in the grants and that created the difference between people and resulted in the riot and disturbance during the era Othman bin Affan
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