A pause in the expression (ie) in (and then to abstain from all Shiites any ...)

MurtadaIrwaniNajafi

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

Scholars of Arabic syntax, interpretation, and diacritical marking of the Qur’ān have expressed different opinions concerning the diacritical marking of ayyu in āya﴾Then from every group We shall draw whichever of them...﴿ [Sūrat al-Maryam: 69]. Due to this difference of opinions, their views on the type of ayyu and the interpretation of the āya has also been different.
In this article, the researcher has tried to mention the related readings for this āya and stated who has related that reading. The present article begins by pointing out the antiquity of the difference that Sībwayh has mentioned when bringing it up, examines its evolution, and makes a deep investigation on the statements expressed concerning the diacritical marking of the āya and all the justifications stated in this regard. This research has not limited its exploration to the above; rather, it has extended it to mentioning the objections that are raised against each opinion and made the conclusion that the Sībwayh’s view – according to which, ayyu in this āya is an accusative object, indeclension (mabnī) and a in the nominative position (mḥallanmanṣūb) – has been the most accurate opinion and the closest to the spirit of the āya. This is a view that has been relied on by the Basrians and attributed to them and brought up in their name when mentioning the difference of opinions of Basrians with the Kufans, hence, having been of interest to the latter researchers

The dimensions of the poeticexperience in Adnan al - Sayegh 's poetry

KhaeryaGjrsh; Hassan DaddakhahTahrani; bOmair; Malik Ka

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

The term new poetic experience in modern Arab Monetary, And that was the content of the known in the old monetary. And may the whole world critics, that experience in life based on the poetic experience, It also unanimously agreed that the source of the successful experience is self-defense when you interact with the event p makes it the poet in the form of a poem, through language picture, and the rhythm. '
Adnan al-alsayegh poet of poets who succeeded in poetic experiences; And because it could provide to try all of the conditions for success, especially at the level of substance, It was triggered by the springs of feelings that they interact in his conscience, The meanings of the subjects of the developed within the event to the broad humanitarian dimensions. Exciting free at large and attractive injecting, And linked to the life is an intimate and unacceptable reality extranational continuously.
And his poems add Syriac language and literature in the Iraqi and Arab poetic experience, In the atmospheres of the longing and love and freedom, The poems are the AL-ALSAYEGH that do not stop at dream signals but shining escalates unfamiliar Prospects.
And in the conclusion of the Matter; The aim of this research on the basis of analytical and descriptive approach, To reveal the Iraqi poet Adnan Al-alsayeghExperience And in the substantive research trends that underpin the poet to express its position regarding The issues of conscience, political, and social..

Western media speech in covering middle east events (Reuters news British agency report about the situation in Iraq as a sample)

IssaMutaqiZadeh; AlaaNaqiZadeh

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

لتحليل الخطاب السياسي مكانة مهمة في الاوساط الاعلامية خاصة في مجال تحرير الاخبار والتقارير الخبرية، حيث يراد من خلاله تبيين الاحداث الخاصةالمرتبطة بالاتصالات، وتكوين نظم الخطاب السياسي وتغييره. ولتحليل النصوص والاحداث الخطابية وصولا الى نظم الخطاب والنظم الاجتماعي، يجب دراسة النصوص والاحداث ضمن الحقول السياسية والاجتماعية، وذلك بالاعتماد على المعلومات الثقافية والكلام المكتوب في الخطاب السياسي. ومن هذا المنطلق، يحاول البحث الراهن، من خلال المنهج الوصفي – التحليلي، أن يسلط الضوء على أحد أساليب الوكالات الغربية في تحرير التقارير الخبرية، وأن يقدمبعض الملاحظات التي وظفتها وكالة "رويترز" للأنباء البريطانية ضمن خطابها عند سرد الاحداث الراهنة في العراق. ويستخلص البحث الى أن المحرر التابع لسياسات الاعلام الغربي يحاول فرض الخطاب السياسي الخاص بمؤسسته على المخاطب من خلال تقديم بعض الرسائل الواضحة والضمنية التي يحوكها ضمن نسيج التقرير أو الخبر.

Renewal in the contemporary Islamic thoughtDr. Abdul Jabar Al-Refaee as a sample

JawadKadhemSamari; Marwa Ahmed Hassan Farhan Al-A; raji

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

Al.Rifaai mentions that we can't renew religious thinking in islam especially from the in heritage theological that shows the mix between Allah and human thoughts also with sacred things and human thoughts about the sacred.
The sacred concept can be contains much meanings , its definitions are variety to be difficult to know one meaning to it. It can be defined as life , or can be defined that related to religion and its symbols and expressions. The sacred joined with which is religious in many its symbols and parts but sometimes the sacred is a way out of religion in its known concept , also it linked in the nature of societies and their limited with it . we can say :we give everythingImportant value over our foundation as human beings. It is sacred as one way.
AL- Rifaai also shows the concept of religion that we can know things according their functions, as the religion function makes the meaning , religion light which is dark in our life also discover the beauty inside things.
The religion in its real correct shape according AL-Rifaai is to give human being meaning of his life and behaviors , this meaning disappear with the control of ideology that rule the religion as its benefit that oppiste its real function that is giving human meaning of his ife and foundation .
The religion renew here isn’t being as give a set of legal opinions and opinions in general but it should be the way of renew from the location that leads to the basic things and essential structure and roots also original things , sources of inspiration that takes from the concept to the believe.We call this renew or refresh either it be doctrine or speech.
AL-Rifaai mentions the necessity of studying inheriting to show that we shouldn’t take it as if it is sacred things but this contrast as some Islamic groups thoughts that still the inheriting as if it be and does it in life today, but this wrong thing cant be happen because it make us feel strangeness with present time
Al-Rifaai ensure that we can't renew the religious thinking and neglects traditional divines , but to function the given things for the science and human knowledge in the study of religious in heritage . to be inside in its core , strangeness its contents and its parts , but the absence the critical situations in the heritage and appearance of loyal historical, also make great everything related to past and unable to understand complex things in the heritage .

Conflicts, starvation, and natural pests and their effect on Tunisian community in age of Hafsid(603AH-1206AD/981AH-1573AD)

NawalTurkiMousa Al-Mousawi; NajatShananAbd Al-Awadi

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

Studying the history of Arab Maghrib, in its different stages, occupied a great importance for a great number of researchers where the important events, on their social, economical and political levels, had effected people with their different social ranks. Those small states in Al-Maghrib in general, and Africa in particular, especially the Hafssy state, that had lasted for three centuries, had been studied and examined to exhibit their political, economical and educational role in this Islamic place, yet the social aspect is still unstudied, so this became the reason, as well as the aim, of selecting this subject where there is no academic research devoted to studying the effect of the family conflicts effects on their rulers and on the society and the famines and the natural disaster that affected the Hafsy society.
The research is divided into an introduction, a conclusion and the bibliography.

New reading in understanding metaphor

UhoodHussainJabor

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

This research is an attempt to benefit from the understanding of the ancients of the term beside the modernists, illustrating the efforts of our scientists in this field, and most famous Abdul QahirJirjani. They had their views on the subject; printed their old opinionsand judgments on the poets, and their view was tilted towards the clarity of the metaphorical image, so they rejected any attempt to renew and took a firm position of the images of Abi metaphorically because they deviated from this obvious avenue they borrowed.
In addition, the research dealt with the contemporary view of metaphor, which diverged from those old theories. The metaphor offered a new face, replacing the theory of reciprocity, the transfer of the word from one environment to another; to an interactive view that is not abstracted from the metaphorical picture; To generate a third party with the ability to suggest in a new sense.

Prediction of academic achievement level by essence regularity for students of college of education

FadhelMuhsin Yusuf Al-Mayali

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

Self-regulation is considered a crucial variant in students' life at the university level. Indeed, it plays a significant role in determining the nature and performance required for achieving the intended learning. Thus, organizing the ideas and beliefs enable the learner to manage and plan the targeting objectives, control the feelings associated with those beliefs and administer the behavioral performance in the learning circum stances. Performance is affected by the process that helps students to focus on, and accurately perform the tasks of self-learning, imagination and concentration. The students' performance can be represented by the knowledge they have acquired in their previous studies. In fact this requires that learning is induced by organizing the self-regulation which expresses the concurrence between mental activity, agitated feelings and the behavioral consequences which are all become apparent during learning in the classroom. Academic achievement of the university students is considerably low. This confirms to the fact that they have been influenced by the social conditions.
The present study aims to identify:
1- Self-regulation of the students at the Faculty of Education;
2- The differences of the self-regulation between male and female students.
3- The predictability of academic achievement based on self-regulation of the students at the Faculty of Education.
Thus, a self-regulation scale consisting of 32 items with four point Likert's method. Validity of the test has been confirmed as indicated by the peer review report. Reliability has been based on Cronbach's alpha; it shows (0.874) range.
Results of the study show that students have self-regulation. Also there are no statistical differences between male and female students. The predicting variables cannot predict self-regulation. One the other hand, there is no relationship between self-regulation and the average of the students' academic achievement. The study is concluded with many results and has some recommendations.

Evaluating study for learning in service programme for biology teachers in secondary level from the training teachers view

Abbas Abdul Mahdi Al-Madhi; QahdanFadhlRadhi

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

The current research is aimed at evaluating programs of continuing education courses for teachers of biology in high school.
The current research is limited to biology teachers at the secondary level for the academic year 2015-2016.
Identify the research community that combines biology teachers at the secondary level of the General Directorate for Educational Najaf for the academic year (2015-2016) totaling 347 teachers and School of the jurisdiction of the life sciences. Having been chosen research community and then choose randomly sample which must be representative of the population has reached (67) and a school teacher.
To achieve the goal of building search requests and prepare an appropriate toolTaatdment (5) five magazines: the time, organization, vocabulary training program of vocational and academic side and the side of human development
And consisted of (28) items were alternatives answer (OK, OK, to what end, is OK)
The results showed that the continuing education courses focusing on programs not related to human development and sustainable development issues. The instability of the courses and curriculum are clearly affected the efficiency of the academic and professional teachers.

Semantic dimension for similar context in meaning in Quranic text

JalilaSalih Sahib; Fadhila Abdul Abbas; TamadharQaedRadhi

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

The verses similar look distinct from the manifestations of miracles chart, it is adorable organized and Rhode duplicate verses Blfezha, or with different moving in to pronounce or organized, is magnificence methods he singled out each verse word singled Mnazertha last word whether they violate them in the construction and in the meaning or synonymous with her; the difference in names and phrases requires the difference in semantics; therefore put each word in the intended position in the verses Almchaphettin to perform dimensional semantic and nods required by the context, and in that the secrets of language; because the sentence or word variation and even a character in similar contexts highlights the great secrets and sentenced strange not imagined only of meditating and manages this great miracle; so you must accommodate outlook to include the full text of its different levels (lexical, and audio, and morphological, and structural, and semantic), taking into account the linguistic context and non-linguistic; to stand connotations characteristics and the pros drafted.
As the words are the text key and the reins of what the connotations and symbols allocated this research to study the (appropriate words contexts similar in the Quranic text), brought together Find a prelude and two axes, eating boot terminology launched by scientists in ancient times, and recently on the like-verbal phenomenon, and devoted the first axis to discuss (Quranic words and accuracy selected), while the second axis was entitled: (a sign similar contexts in the word in the text of the Quran).

Air conditioning devices in Abbasid age Badhange as sample

HamdiaSalehDuli

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

Alpadhnj concept and its impact in the centuries of Islamic civilization and contemporary time
The Alpadhnj is one of the most important cooling systems , known to traditional architecture , in all cities and capitals of the Islamic world, and that the design and engineering of this device, and the varying types, in line with the climatic implications , and the vagaries of the weather, but it shows the breadth of vision, and the excellence of engineering , architectural and genius in Abbasid era , which brought together the needs of environmental , social and privacy requirements , and at the same the aesthetics, time are not neglected.
Alpadhnj is considered one of the most traditional elements in the Muslim world as made of its privileged level on cultural and environmental level , as it aims to use to alleviate some of the weights on the walls, as well as economic side him in reducing the use of raw materials in the construction , while the main goal of it is the entring of air in the aspects of the building different heights by its presence
Nature of the study required the introduction and divided into
The first section was entitled Alpadhnj concept and its impact on the Islamic urbanization , has included a number of paragraphs , including: the industry in the Islamic era , the concept of Alpadhnj , its historical development , its components , architecture and how to put it.
And dealt with in the second topic Alpadhnj in the historical , literary, medical books.
The last topic I studied the impact of Alpadhnjon the contemporary world , and tried hard to shed light on the most important developments in the Alpadhnj , and Anuah , uses , and its impact on the Western world.
Finally, I hope I have been successful to offer find what serves me by the historical sources.

Giving and giving in Shiite literature

DrMohammad TaqiZand and Kelly; SayedHaydarShirazi

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

Every poet has his own motive for writing poems. One of the motive is Al-Isti'tā', meaning begging for a charity, which has been common among professional poets. These people made poetry a means of living. On the opposite, al-Atā' (bounty) given from Beytolmal (the treasure belong to the Islamic community) was a means used by Kings as a propaganda and to satisfy their people. However, Al-Isti'tā' earned a unique value in Shi'ite culture and literature, as the demands became a path to respect and dignity. The discourse was then crystalized in the form of resorting to holy shrines of Ahl al-Bayt (a), seeking intercession, seeking mercy and goodness, and expressing the true virtues of Ahl al-Bayt (a). This culminated in the consolidation of friendship and the desire for sacrifice and martyrdom. Bounty given by Ahl al-Bayt (a), without leading to arrogant and egotistical behaviors or a means for executing false-based policies, resulted in honoring the right, commemorating man, preserving prestige, helping the oppressed, and defending the innocence. Regarding the points, the study at first investigated the motives behind the two kinds of al-Isti'tā', providing some poems as evidence. Then, different kinds of al-Atā', material and immaterial, have been discussed focusing on biography of the Prophet of Islam (s) and Ahl al-Bayt (a) and relying on Quran, Hadiths, and verifying poems

Intellectual buildings of political violence in Kharij

Mohamed Ibrahim Pepl

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

The dissidents' matter is considered one of the matters which occupied the mind of thinkers and scientists as that matter included extremism , violence and exaggeration . The dissidents are a team appeared in the first Hijri century especially in Siffeenwar . They are the first of the Islamic movements which used the religious violence to take a political dimension .
They lifted a slogan of ( no governing but for god ) . Thus , the believers' prince "Ali Ben AbiTaleb" replied ( their slogan is right word aiming to vein . yes , there is no governing but for god . Those people said there is no a prince but this contracts the fact as people need a price who may be good or bad .this slogan was so ambiguous based upon its origin and it is considered political in spite of its religious meaning and it is not Islamic principle to express the essential political Islamic theory
This study is trying to know the political violence by the dissidents against the others. These dissidents considered the others unbelievers so it is possible to kill them
It is necessary to study the dissidents thinking clearly to not let their ideas and principles to be used due to the desires to get the higher position within the authority .
This study starts from a theory saying that the political violence of the outers sets out really from political origins but in fact it is religious . they interpret the religious texts due to their desires and opinions to achieve their aims . we are trying to confirm that by this study . the study was divided in to 4 arises . the 1st axis is a knowledge entry of the political violence , the 2nd axis id sealing with the dissidents origin , the 3rd axis is dealing with the religious and political principle of them and the 4th axis is focusing on the dissidents' credits in using the violence Finally , I stated the conclusions .

Exposing children to adult programme and its reflection on their social conduct A survey on parents in Karbala

HaiderShalalMut

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

This research seeks to identify the nature of the relationship between children and television programs for adults, such as news bulletins and talk shows, movies, soap operas, and the extent of their knowledge and follow-up to her, in addition to knowledge of the motives that young people seek to achieve through follow-up programs and vertebrae as a bigger TV and its impact on social behavior.
The main problem of the research on the main question (What is the relationship between the exposure the children and the adult and highlighted the implications that arise from them for the programs)
This study belongs to the descriptive studies used "approach to the survey" of a sample of children in the primary stage of grades (fourth - fifth - sixth) to learn about the features of the basic characteristics of them in their relationship with the adult programs offered by satellite channels, and the researcher to choose a sample of children, strong (200) children were randomly selected and then a field data collection using a form prepared for that purpose.
The most important findings of the research are as follows:
1. The results revealed that 48.4% of respondents said that the proportion of spend one hour a day to watch adult programs, the highest rate among other ratios, while 37.4% of respondents said that the proportion of spend two hours a day to watch them came in second place.
2. The results showed that recreational programs that include (films, serials, songs, plays, competitions) came in ranked first among the adult programs watched by children.
3. concluded results of the choices respondents clauses scale to adult programs lead to positive and negative social behavior of a child reflections.

The national community and its impact on the political development in Syria after the great Syrian revolution 1927-1936

Raheem Hassan Muhammad Al-Shami

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

The research Touches National Bloc on the political development in Syria in the wake of the Great Syrian Revolution for the period from 1927 to 1936.not mean the end of the Syrian National Movement , after of GreatSyrian Revolution in 1925Resistance to the French domination. Rather , the struggle and the resistance movements continued. Therefore , the political leaders of Syria and it national movements commanders believed the need for establishing one national front called the " National Bloc", Which has become since 1931 the country's leadership and official spokesman of the National Movement.
The National Bloc got involved in the elections of the constituent Assembly, which took place on 24 April 1928 whose its candidates won the elections. Ibrahim Hananu became the chairmen of the committee that was tasked to draft the first constitution for Syria.
After the French authorities deliberately resorted to election rigging whose results have come out in favor of government candidate, the French High Commissioner Busho called the new Syrian parliament to hold a meeting on June 7, 1932 at which Muhammad Ali al-Abid was appointed the first president of the Syria Republic and Haqqi Al- Azm the prime minister.
After a long struggle waged by the Syrian people and the leaders of National bloc for independence through strikes and bloody clashes with the French authorities, the latter bowed to the desire of the Syrian People and signed on the Syrian- French Treaty in1936

Positional contrast for fertility levels in Iraqi governorates in 1997-2007

far Abdul Zahra Al-Najm; DhiaaJa

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

This research shows the spatial distribution of population fertility in Iraq as well as the reasons and direction of population fertility for 1997-2007. Fertility direction had been recognized via the statistical analysis by using the criteria degree for all fertility levels in Iraq. It deals with birth general average, fertility general average, gender- average fertility average, total growth average, fertility total average and children to women rate.
Of the most important results of the research are that birth average in the studied year had increased lightly, fertility general average directed towards decrease, (25-29) age group represents the highest one for female and total growth average, fertility total average and children to women rate had decreased remarkably. So it is necessary to organize family by diffusing the awareness of contraceptive devices, encouraging women to have the required scientific level, and working in all governorates to have the same direction of fertility via the family planning and organizing

Positional analysis for manufacturing healthy water in Hilla city

Abbas FadhelUbaid

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

The sanitary water industry of the modern era industries borne out technical and technological development reached by modern science, and as a means of raising the level of health objective basis is human development, process of reverse leaching (Reveres Osmoses) works to get rid of microbes and germs and chemicals harmful to the body salts and atoms mud stuck with water and then becoming pure healthy water undrinkable, also packaging operations and materials industry are mechanical ways, using modern machines and machines rely on electric power in the recycling industry making it the list itself.
The research aims to reveal the most important spatial factors (natural, human and economic) that have contributed to attracting healthy water industry and endemic in the city of Hilla, and the spatial distribution of the sites of the industry within the urban space, and how production processes and production quantities that emerged from, it was shown that the most important contributing factors in endemic of the industry are (location, climate, water resources, labor, and government guidance, economic savings, raw materials, capital, market, energy resources, transportation, land) and that helped carry five plants for the manufacture of sanitary water in the city of Hilla, concentrated whole in the south of the city's industrial area.

Consistency and its impact in the Quraanic speechSemantic reading in the story of prophetSolomon)(

RajaaMuhsinHameed

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

( The consistency and its imbact on the tent coherence in the Quranic speech and reading tag in the story of prophet Sulaiman _Alihsalam-)
The tebtural studier are evolved attempting to enter the world of intensive text and highlight its maturity by studying the text in term of the internal and external contexts . These studies are changel from the others that preceded as abusic unit of analysis and so, it is Camel as a suence that idea had been adobted as ( science script ) language or text linguistics which interested in studying the text as a major linguistic unit by examining many as pects of the most important bounding or Cohesion methods and types including : consistenly, harmony , and I could Idientify it in the text directly while the second is the conceptual relation ship ,cognitive as wev , It may vary from reader to reader interestingly . The most important elements of the value ofconsistenly but help to control the longical semantic relations , harmony facilitatation to anderstand it represents a superficial relation shipto the text achieved in the presenle of certain elements of the language lvithin the teat such as redundancy , deletion , inter face , separation and effectire role in recipes threaded parts of the text to each other doven to the provisions of ther cohesion . If the text has successinevocabulany and retold judge described the meaning and recedes .
Quran as read from the beginning to end . If the narrative is tight and precise foundries being miracle from A to Z like .one hardly Nor is almort like a breakup between its parts held versified ofpearh so unqve cohesion represeuts or important dimension.
In the study of Quranic tent and stund on the nature of the linguistic system components shap .to get value .
So, It is the foundation of this research way markeel or titeal by
( The consistency and its imbact on the tent coherence in the Quranic speech and reading tag in the story of prophet Sulaiman _Alihsalam-)

Strategies of educational thought at Al-Jahiz

SelimaSwadiZaghir

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

Al-Jahiz's strategic foundation is based on a number of concepts, such as thinking and the educational process based on its intellectual foundations, which Al-Jahiz has confined to the systematic doubt, experience, and extrapolation that must be confirmed in supporting theories and establishing facts.
In addition, the method of educational arrogance which took writing as a means of spreading science and knowledge and make it one of the most important ways to teach science, based on the scientific methods that have a solid - imposing itself on him, assuming the validity of significance and clarity of proof _ What is Markuz in general mind Society, the owner of the dictionary of the Dabba, the dialogue that took place about the status of scientific genius and one of his contemporaries: (God if I put a message in the rabbit nose.
* Yaqoot Al-Hamwi, Cairo, Dar Al-Ma'mun: 16/99.

Law making and its importance in Islamic thought

ManafHaiderAlous

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

The most important results that we have reached the end of the search for brevity:
1. follows the subject of our audit on the Study of the flag, which is a natural consequence to him.
2. Nothing in Muslims adhere to the linguistic sense of the disease if it means the flag after the ignorance, because this is something that asserts the mind and transport struck down, and in the hadith: "God has shown his ignorance."
3. The well-known that with our audit of Mokhtsat Shiites, but the other team believes in science its content, and the conflict between the two sides verbally warned him as Sheikh useful and was followed by others on it.
4. The educational impact of the disease is the human urge to beg alms and pray and cruel, and obedience and the mainland, where the whole proceeding that radiance of hope for change, as opposed to what Le Pen froze appreciation on things as they are without the possibility of change regularly consumes Balbda.
5. Finally, then turn in faith and thought goes to the narrowing of the absolute divine power, and our audit hits the corners of this thought and undermines its structure of rules, Valibda manifestation of divine power absolute, and believes in him but believe in God and condemns him to this absolute power.
thanks God first and last

The Pragmatic Nature of Manipulation

Fareed H. H. Al-Hindawi; Salwa Ibrahim Kamil

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

Broadly defined, manipulation is a kind of covert behavior or a means, whether linguistic or non- linguistic, used by manipulators in certain communicative encounters to achieve their goals, desires, and interests regardless of the perceptual, cognitive , and emotional feelings of their interlocutors. In this regard, they utilize myriad devices, especially those dishonest ones, like cunning, lying, making tricks, deceiving, and the like. To be successful in doing so, manipulators should have a cognition which enables them to pursue their own interests through making use of some aspects of human cognition, notably reasoning, checking for likeliness, and emotions. As such, manipulators play on their targets’ weaknesses to influence their motivation, beliefs, emotions, and reaction. For some scholars, manipulation is a psychologicalissuebecause it can be considered as a kind of human behavior or cognition. For others, it falls within the region of cognitive pragmatics since it is basically based on the use of cognition in relation to context. In this study, as far as language use is concerned, it is argued that manipulation is more pragmatic than psychological in nature. Besides, it is characterized by pragmatic features other than the cognitive ones. Hence, it is felt, here, that there is a need to reveal those pragmatic aspects to locate its treatment in its right place. This is done by means of identifying the relationship between manipulation and various pragmatic theories and issues.

Politeness in Imam Ali's Letter to Malik Al-Ashtar

RamiaFu; adAbdulazeezMirza

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

Politeness is a clear enough pragmatic concept that has been dealt with extensively from various points of view. This commonness brings to the forefront the impression that there might be nothing new to add to the topic when a paper makes its appeal to attempt it recently. However, this paper endeavors to prove something different. This is supported by observing that there do exist certain contexts where politeness plays a subsidiary (or no) role in communication (be it written or spoken). The most readily cited example is the institutional contexts whereby issuing an official punishment, for instance, has nothing to do with politeness. Yet, this should not lead to the over-hasty conclusion that such contexts are impolite; it is just that politeness is employed in a rather peculiar way. It is this peculiarity on which the present paper rests. More specifically, this work traces the way by which Imam Ali, being the super-ordinate ruler, makes, when issuing letters to address his co-ordinate rulers, certain alignments between being authoritative and polite at the same time. This alignment is mostly highlighted when noticing that politeness, in one of its instantiations, involves giving the addressee options, whereas authority impedes this freedom. As such, in certain positions, Imam Ali issues mitigated commands to Malik, in other cases, he uses direct counterparts. That is, the strategies of politeness in the aforementioned letter vary according to the issue being discussed, and not according to the addressee himself.

The illusion and the Reality in Friedman's Short Story "Beautiful Scars

Zina Abdul-Hussein Hassan

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

This paper probes the bad effects of being a model girl whose life gets entrapped between illusion and reality. The paper illuminates those bad effects (being an ideal woman, making real friends and lovers, and modeling career, behavior and style) of illusion respectively, depending on Friedman's short story "beautiful scars". These bad effects of illusion contrast with reality that Friedman shown through the faith in Jesus, real friendship, real love.Sheshowed the complete reality of human beingsviathe death of themain character "Jade". The paper presented the findings that the writer explainedby making the contrast between illusion of life and reality of death to focus on the problems of modeling life. Finally, Friedman approved that there is no everlasting beauty, no real friendship in the life of appearance, no real love in the life of temptations and modeling career is not a perfect one as being thought by young girls.