The mapping representation of the population distribution in Najaf Governorate

Abdul Ali Hassan Al-Khafaf; MustafaAbdullah Al SuwaidiAl-Khafaji; Mohammed KazemJawad

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

This study aimed to represent the distribution maps population of the province of Najaf cartography, where he sought a researcher to hire information and data in the mapping of the high precision in drawing and design, as well as inference and update and analysis, which contains technology of (GIS) has great potential in spatial analysis and descriptive, as well as Show spatial variations of geographical phenomena on the one hand, and the spatial distribution of the other hand and the reasons Tbainehma, following my presentation and style analysis, which depend largely on the map to achieve process Plug cartography, they represent the main objective of the map maker. The research aims to prepare maps specialist dealing with the distribution of population of the province of Najaf from different aspects and highlight the feasibility analysis of these maps to give a complete picture and interdependent all manifestations of different geographical and describes spatial relationships exchanged between them and their impact on each other, using Visual Analysis and record up to achieve the highest value cognitive.
Research has shown focus most of human resources in the center of Najaf (the administrative center of the province), concentrated (49%) of the population on the area ratio of up to (1.57%) according to the estimates of 2010. From the analysis of Lorenz curve shows large area inequality (area concentration) resulting from the spacing distribution line actual distribution line ideal, this refers to some concentration of the population in the area a few of the province by population estimates for the year 2010. Study found installation environmental population in the province that There administrative units increase the proportion of urban population on the proportion of the rural population, the center spend Najaf and district center of Kufa, and the reason is attributed to the expansion of cities and the migration factor population, as one of the cities that attract people, because they Regional Centre for the province and concentrated activities and variety of events. And other than the proportion of the rural population to urban residents.

The effect of the Kufic in the interpretation of the Qur'an in the eighth century AH

AyedKarimAlwan Al; Harizi; Hassan Abdel SadaSweid

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

This research deals with the grammatical questions for the interpreters of the eighth century of hegira. The researcher attempts to show the effect of Kufi Grammar on their books of Interpretation by analyzing some of the holy Quranic verses and show the interpreters different points of view with the varied grammatical significances.
The researcher found that most of the interpreters tended to predicate the term by its meaning, in their grammatical direction, rather than predicating the term and the meaning, and that they mentioned more than one grammatical opinion upon the single verse especially in the case of implication which they did not consider it a standard. So we can say that the effect of the kufi grammarians is not clear in these books of interpretation especially in the questions relating the pronoun.

Spatial variation of the values of electrical conductivity in the soil of Qadisiyah Governorate

Abd El - Hassan Dabboun Abu Rahil; Jawad Abdul Kadhim Kamal; Zahraa Mahdi Abdul RidaAbadi

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

The research aims to detect discrepancies spatial and seasonal values of electrical conductivity in the soil of Qadisiyah province, and represented the limits of search spatial province of Qadisiyah, representing the central part of the easy spate within the Middle Euphrates region, as it extends the study area between latitudes (17ˉ, 31˚) and ( 42, ˉ32˚) to the north, and longitude (34ˉ, 44˚) and (49ˉ, 45˚) to the east.
Find the collection and analysis of samples (164 were adopted) located at a depth of (0-30) (3060) cm and distributed among soil shoulders rivers and soil river basins and soil depressions and soil HorAldelmj and soil sand dunes and sandy soil areas and soil Western plateau winter and two seasons specimens collected during the month of January and the summer season, which samples collected during the month of July 2014.
The research found that the electrical conductivity values in the soil of Qadisiyah province in general few to medium salinity according to the standard soil classification according to the degree of salinity depending on the electrical conductivity Decemenz / m to paste saturated soil, and that there are differing spatial and seasonal values as a result of the influence of a combination of factors the most important climate natural vegetation and agricultural malpractices by the farmers of adding a large chemical fertilizer to the soil and do not use the agricultural cycle amounts.

Mechanisms of Interpretation in Razi Pride and Tabatabaic Significance

Hakim Habib Al-Kraiti; Rasha Saud Abdelali

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

The research throws light on the explanative machineries for the two explainers, Al-FaKher Al-Razy and Scholar Al-Tabataba'i,to show the main similarity and difference points between them. Both had adopted the same machineries, yet they have different methods of treatment according to their rise, education, periodand doctrine. The scientific connecting had the great effect on the two explainers analyses, it appeared clearly on Al-FaKher Al-Razy; sometimes, in terms of exhibiting the opinions upon certain verse, he tended to the analysis that is revealed by the scientific connecting so he preferred it. Proverb, or example, represented the intensive part of semantic, Al-FaKher Al-Razy believed that explaining the meaning by example is better than neglecting it. The two explainers adopted one principle in the unequivocal words and the equivocal words issue which is referring the equivocal to the unequivocal to define it. Both of the two explainers,in their analyses, had depended greatly on the revealing reasons thatAl-FaKher Al-Razy had adopted all the reasons that had been said upon one verse.

The relationship between the Iraqi Academy of Sciences and the Union of Arabic Language Synagogues

Ahmed Naji Al Ghurairi; Lec Ahmed Abdul RasoolJabr Al - Shughairi

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

We can conclude that the aim the Union of language academies and scientific Arab who threw him since it was founded is to unite the Arab scientific term for the elimination of the multiplicity of the term of the consideration the scientific one of confusion and chaos, and seeks Union for this unification, and the subsequent promotion of Arab scientific renaissance, in which Arab scientists collaborate in a variety of their own countries.
Union was unable, due to circumstances beyond his will, to rise his mission in an optimal manner, and must redouble efforts to eliminate all obstacles that stand in the way of the Union in order to strengthens the performance of the Nat its tasks.
Could be restricted to targets which they were established Arab language academies are as follows:
-enrich the Arabic language by making them keep pace with the requirements of the times
-unification of scientific terms and words of civilization
-encourage the translation and localization to increase the wealth of the Arabic language and the development of expressive energies
-Put dictionaries facing the needs of the times.
- facilitate the rules of Arabic language teaching both in terms as exchange rates or of writing.
- Heritage Revival and achieve mothers of the old Arabic books in various fields.

Positions of Shaykh al - Shariah al - Asfahani in the revolution of the twentieth

Elham Mahmoud El Jader; Rawa Sabah Kanawi

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

The reason for choosing this topic as the them of the search is the role old the religious institutions which interacted with the political Developments that Al-Najaf city went through .Another purpose was that Fatihullah Bin Mohammad Jwad Al-Asfahani known as Sheikh al-shariea Al-Asfahani who was the spiritual guidance of Al-Eshreen revolution , He confronted the capitalist countries which tried to invade the world proving his point that the real leader is known through the results that he leads his group to.This can be created through self confidence , wisdom ,ability to take care of others and managing its affairs .This can be seen in the personality of Al-Asfahani. .

The City of Aklish Andalusia 93-543h / 711-1148m

JassemYassin Al - Darwish; Hussein Jabbar Al-Olawi

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

City Ucles in the gap East is located to the north-east part of region Centbrah , Muslims have opened in the year 93 AH / 711 AD, and settled region many Berber tribes most famous family built a Nun of barbarism Hawara who have assumed leadership which for a long time until the fall of Toledo the year 478 AH / 1085 AD their political influence has been ended .
It had been reconstruction and fortify by Alfatih bin a Nun at the beginning of the fourth century AH / tenth century, and continued as a city fortress and play an important role in the face of Christians until the final fall of the year 543 AH / 1148 AD.
The research first historical geography of the city Ucles to geographical location and nature of the impact on historical events that it was passed by, and then we dealt with the political history starting from the opening until the fall, and we finished research contributions of people in various fields of science ..

Intensification and suggestion in the narrative poem according to Sheikh Jaafar

Hassan Abdul Odeh Al-Khakani; Hind YassinTaha Algerian

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

The condensation characteristic important underlying very short story is different from cryptography and puzzles that may be used by the narrator to give the text of which condensation is required, Valtktev inspiring is what should beg him storyteller, a keen text, is Altkitv and suggest convergence between the story and poetry point, as the most prominent features Hair known and its properties is condensation and suggestion, and here she met story with hair, was of the narrative poem by by Sheikh Jaafar properties is distinguished by condensation inspiring and reduction which opens behind horizons Tag deep, it unfolds text to the recipient of the first reading but needs to reader cultured, and to readings multiple poetic texts.
Who read by Sheikh Jaafar see the trend of short stories in his poetry is very clear but deliberately to the intensification and reduced Fbataat poem narrative assembly between hair characteristics of the intensification and intimation of deep significance and the short story that share with hair these characteristics as well as to say, dialogue and event properties

The theory of compensating the bases and their applications jurisprudence (analytical study)

Hussein Sami Sherali; Sherine Ghazi Abdel Amir

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

The compensation references with the theory of creative and innovation at the level of research newborn idiosyncratic novels vulnerable were subjected to address the weak part of it and replace it with another contributes to cover the scientific needs in the shrine inferred idiosyncratic .
This theory is also useful in the field of conflict between releases are abound as the swinging of his ways, on the other rises so modern rank to rank higher than it was .
The striking similarity between the party of the three elders (Sheikh Tusi and Sheikh Negus and Sheikh Saduq) to assets or works with many of them match allowed to establish some kind of relationship sindhi among themselves in the areas of compensation and its applications by transferring the right part of the way one of them and make it a place of weak part in the way the other as part of the scientific bases that allow such that exchange .

Evaluation of trace elements of groundwater in Al-Rehab area, south of Samawah city

KifahSaleh Al-Asadi; SaifMajid Al - Khafaji

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

The current study included determining the extent of groundwater contamination in the Rehab area of trace elements (scarce), according to Iraqi and international standards highlight the benefit and use of this water and therefore know the quality and concentration of pollutants .vdila to clarify current distribution image of the characteristics of the samples studied water through the use of statistical indicators that determine the distribution of water and trends spatial characteristics, as was the use of the standard deviation to get to know the amount of the typical value of the central arithmetic.
The objective of the establishment of a geographic database for groundwater management in the region and evaluation and analysis as a means characterized by precision, speed, and determine the final output that includes maps and statistical data. It was collected (22) groundwater samples during the month (July 2015) and conduct laboratory analyzes them.

Rejection between negation and infertility

Mohammed SabarNajm; Esra Shaker Gouda

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

Praise be to Allah and peace and blessings be upon the noblest of creation wholes Muhammad (may God bless him and his family) and The God of the good and virtuous and his companions Almentajabin and ask God that we might receive the intercession of the Day of Judgment.
This research has addressed the study of irreversibility in the Koran which DAI much attention from scholars and researchers, because the irreversibility of the necessary things came about al-Bayt (peace be upon them) of the frequent news.
Has established itself as evidence of mental and transport and premature after the appearance of Imam Mahdi (Hurry God reappearance Sharif), come out with him out of sheer faith pure, and pure disbelief purely, but tragically these two teams do not return them to the life of the world, which is granted by the Shi'ite .
And this research has been built on two and four Detectives per season Mbgesin:
• Chapter I eat the concept of irreversibility and our faith has included two sections, the first section required that deals with the concept of irreversibility and ensure two: The first requirement demands: the concept of irreversibility in the language, and the second requirement: the concept of irreversibility in the convention. The second section was necessary to have faith in proven irreversibility may carry with it the three demands: the first requirement: our faith in her back, and the second requirement: irreversibility fact, and the third requirement: in irreversible Shiites with Mahdi (Hurry God reappearance Sharif).
• The second chapter, titled the occurrence of irreversibility has included two sections, the first section in which two, the first requirement demands: eat question Waller beer, and the second requirement: possible and falling. The second section has dealt with the evidence contained in the occurrence of irreversibility and included three demands: the first requirement: eating guide book, and the second requirement: A Manual of the year, and the third requirement: A Guide consensus.
• At the conclusion of the researcher to many of the results, note that it contained a table of contents, list of sources and references

شُبهَة ركون النبي () إلى المشركين عند المفسريندراسة نقدية ﭽﯮﯯﯰﯱﯲﯳﯴﯵﯶﯷﭼالاسراء :74

Ali KazimSemisem; Ammar Abdul Razzaq AliAl - Saghir

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

This research deals(suspicion submission Prophet Muhammad to the polytheists when the commentators) error systematic interpretative where commentators took place in their interpretation of the verse: And indeed, they were about to tempt you away from that which We revealed to you in order to [make] you invent about Us something else; and then they would have taken you as a friend (73)And if We had not strengthened you, you would have almost inclined to them a little(74)Then [if you had], We would have made you taste double [punishment in] life and double [after] death. Then you would not find for yourself against Us a helper(75)(alesraa) where the enemy Prophet Muhammad  near that tends to infidels and fascination with them, and some of them said that they would respond to the request, which ranged in the opinions of the commentators on three views
First opinion: survey on their gods when roam the Sacred House
Second opinion: the requirement to educate their Islam not to kneel in worship and not to leave the worship of idols, for one year
Third opinion: a requirement Quraish expelled the simple and the poor of his council
Decides to search this suspicion with the resulting to matters relating to the infallibility of Prophet Muhammad  according to the opinions of the commentators, and their buildings novelist and intellectual in the infallibility of the Prophet 
And baptizing the methodology to cash in payment of such suspicion, summarized in two axes to pay, a payment and payment Anakda ornaments, to come out between Monday the outcome of tag, after a series of actions permeate these Aldfien.

The harmony and cohesion between the two cognitive and artistic structures in the illiteracy of veteran poet Tiger Bin Tulb She was exterminated from the ruins of a wealthy ember, and she was forced to buy Vittel

Atef MohamedKanaan

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

يسعى هذا البحث إلى دراسة الانسِجام والتّماسُك بين البِنْيتيْن المعرفيَّة والفنيَّة في لاميّة النَّمر بن تولَب، وتناول الدراسة الأبعادَ النَّفسيَّة والمعرفيَّة، حيثُ التركيزُ فيها على دِراسة الإنسانِ والمَكان في عَصر الشّاعر، ثم دراسة الأبعادُ الفنِّيَّة والجماليَّة، حيثُ يتمّ التركيز هنا على قراءةِ الصّورة، والنّسقِ الصّوتيّ اللذيْن مكّنا الشاعرَ من صياغة القِيَم النَّفسيَّة المعرفيَّة في قوالبَ فنيَّةٍ جماليَّة في النَّصّ. إضافةً إلى قراءة التَّناصّ مع لاميَّة النَّمِر، التي فيها يركز الباحث على المشترَك الثَّقافيّ بين النَّصّ وبعضِ النصوص الشّعريَّة العربيَّة التي عالجتْ موضوعاتِ النَّصّ.

Expansion or expansion of mediation and the example

Ihsan bin Sadiq bin Mohammed Al Lawati

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

Although the linguistic lexicon of "expansion" or "widening" is clear, it is the antithesis of narrowness. Old critics have used these words with different meanings in different contexts, but these connotations have not found the contemporary scholars enough attention. They mentioned the previous phrases without bothering to explain their meanings or follow their horizons. Others mentioned succinct terms containing general provisions that were closer to the personal impression.
This study tries to approximate the two words in a way that follows the resources mentioned in two well-known heritage books: "Al Wasata" by Judge Ali bin Abdul Aziz Al-Jarjani (d. 392 AH) and "Al Mathal Al Saer" by Ibn Al Atheer (d.637 AH). The study thus seeks to distance itself from the general impressionistic judgments. The two words are read in context in two books known to be repeated for their use in terms of differences that the researchers differed in their definition. They had various opinions in which the study discussed and then reached its own opinion, which is connected With the data of modern stylistic studies

The martyrdom of the Prophet's Hadith between the melody and the narration in the sense

GholamrezaKarimiFerd; Mahmoud AbadananMahdizadeh; AmmarSarakhh

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

The principles of syntax in the Arabic language which are trusted by scholars in the field of formulation, include the Holy Qur'an, Noble Hadithand Arabiclanguage, whether poetry or prose, and in this issue the scholars have relied on quote and hearing., as well as induction of these principles with necessary precision.Citation to the Holy Qur'an, which has beensuccessivelyquoted in both writing and memorization, has not been disputed by scholars.Scholarshad laid down certain adverbs for the citationto the Arabic languageand they trusted in the language of some tribes of a certain timewhichtemporal and localadverbs that had been laid down for the citationtofluent Arabs words are proofs for.
The disagreement among the scholars only occuredin the field of citation to the Noble Hadith andthere is no doubt the Holy Prophet Mohammad (peace be upon him) was the most fluent person of the Arabs and thus, it is desirable to make his Hadith as a principle toformulate syntax after the Holy Qur'an.But some scholars forbade citation to Hadith because they believed that Hadith has been narrated through meaning - not term,and that some of the hadith narrators had tone in narration, and previous scholars had not cited to the Noble hadith in their books and what was quoted from them.
In this case, a group of other later scholars opposed them andabsolutely allowed citation to Noble Hadith.There was also a third group who was moderate between the permission and the prohibition.In this paper, this issue was studiedin view of hadith narration - in view of meaning and tone -, in which these two cases were overshadowed.Because this issuehas beena source of disagreement among scholars in the field of citation and prohibition of citation.

Visualization in logic, grammar and eloquence

aldin Party; Baha; JawadSaadounzadeh

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

This researchincluded the achievement of the meaning and definition of Imagination and Ratification in Logic, Syntax and Rhetoric. Imagination and Ratification are two Logic terms. The former refers to the presence of a thing without any judgment and the letter means the presence of the thing with judgment. There is no specific term in syntax and rhetoric in this field since these two are related to knowledge branches and there is no place in syntax and rhetoric for knowledge and its branches. So if Syntax or Rhetoric scholars apply them, they wholly convey their logic meaning.
And the research ended by these following results:
1.The application of the two terms Syntax and Ratification in the sixth Hijri century by Sakaki after the separation of sciences and arts of each other, and generality of the Dialectical Tendency on the Miftah AL Oloum, and the dominance of mental and logical outlook on it.
2. Any Ratification is followed by an Imagination.
3. (Naam) is the basic letters of acceptance and Ratification, as it used with Declarative and Interrogative sentences, Positive and Negative sentences, so it means ratification of what is before it, whether it is Positive and Negative sentences in Declarative or Interrogative sentence, but according to AL Mobarred, (Naam) is used for each Positive statement but (Bala) for Negative sentences .
4. Ratification frequently occurred in Verb phrases, while is less in Noun phrases, because the Negativity and Positivity is related to the meanings and events, which are the concepts of the verbs and not the nouns.

The Arabic-phraseic language preserved by the Algerian colloquium is the struggle for survival

Nasruddin Sheikh Bohani

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

اللغة كائن اجتماعي يتطور ويتدهور، ينمو ويزدهر يعايش الأحداث و عنها يعبر ، يموت لكنه لا يقبر فيظل منسيا، فكم من ألفاظ أكل عليها الدهر وشرب وظلت كتمان النسيان لا لشيء إلا لأن المجتمع رفض استعمالها بحجة أنها لا تواكب الأحداث، ولا تساير الزمن، وهو ما نؤكده عن اللغة العربية التي انتزعت منها بعض مفرداتها ونسبت لغيرها أو رفضت رفضا قاطعا على أنها ليست من الفصاحة في شيء، بالرغم من أن المصادر اللغوية القديمة تؤكد فصاحتها وبيانها، وقد أدرجت هذه الكلمات في العامية أو ما يطلق عليها في المغرب العربي بالدارجة التي أدرجها الناس في تواصلهم الاجتماعي ودأبوا على استعمالها في حياتهم اليومية.
إنّ المتتبع لحياة الشعوب العربية اليومية، يرى في تواصلهم وفي تعابيرهم الواصبة أنهم يستعملون من المفردات الفصيحة في تعاملاتهم أكثر مما يستعملون العامية منهم ولأقول الخارجة عن قانون الفصحى، وقد يعزو بعضهم ترك الكلمات القديمة لأسباب اجتماعية وأخرى اقتصادية، ذلك أنّ الظرف الحالي لا يسمح باستعمالها كونها لا توافق العصر وثورته التكنولوجيا، ولا إخال أنّها أسباب مقنعة تجعلنا نتخلى عن ثروتنا المفرداتية التراثية التي شفّعها القرآن في حصيلته اللغوية التي أسكتت قديما وحديثا أفواه الخطباء والبلغاء، وسنّها من بعده لسان رسوله ().
إذا كان الناس يتحججون بهذه الأسباب في ترك بعض الألفاظ التي لا تصلح لمسايرة التقدم فإن هذا يعتبر ضربا من ضروب التخلي عن الهوية العربية، والابتعاد عن مقومات الشخصية الاسلامية، فلا ضرر إن استعملنا لفظة قديمة وفرضناها على عصرنا، ولا ضرر إن طورنا لغتنا وأفدناها بثروة جديدة من الألفاظ مثلما يفعل غيرنا ولا شائبة في ذلك.
و تأخذنا هذه الدراسة إلى معرفة بعض الألفاظ التي استغنى عنها الناس في تعاملاتهم وكتاباتهم ومواثقهم الاجتماعية واليومية؛ وهم يعزونها إلى العامية التي لا ينبغي التلفظ بها أو الاستعانة بها في معاهداتهم لأنها ليست من الفصاحة في شيء، ما يجعل الحديث يستأنس بكلمات فصيحة بليغة وجدت مع الفرد الجزائري يراها عامية وهو يستعملها يوميا رغم أنفه، يظن أنّ الفصحى خلقت لتموت بين جدران الكتاتيب والمدارس.
ولدرإ هذه الشبهة،- وسميت شبهة لأن بعضا من الحاقدين حاولوا خلط أوراق العربية لضربها في صميمها ليشتبه الأمر على أهلها فيتركوا التعامل بها – وجدت بعض مفردات اللغة العربية في المجتمع الجزائري تنسب إلى العامية، ولكن منبعها فصيح ومشربها صحيح، فحفظت إلا أنها منعت من الاستعمال العلمي والأكاديمي، وقد تغلب الجانب المجتمعي على الجانب المدرسي والجامعي في حفظ هذه الثروة الهائلة من المفردات لتظل العربية شامخة راسخة كشجرة أصلها ثابت وفرعها في السماء.
واختارت الدراسة هذا الموضوع مركزة على بعض المجتمعات العربية كالمجتمع الجزائري، لتبين أن العربية بخير، وأنها ما زالت تحتفظ بكنوزها وثرواتها الغنية التي لا تنضب ولا تحول، في عنوان موسوم بألفاظ عربية فصيحة حفظتها العامية الجزائرية، صراع البقاء، حيث قسمت الدراسة البحث إلى فصلين فصل نظري وآخر تطبيقي فأما النظري فيتناول مفاهيم حول العامية والفصحى والفروق التي بينهما، وأما الجانب التطبيقي فيكتفي بذكر تلك الألفاظ العربية الفصحى التي استغنى عنها الجزائريون في علومهم بالرغم من استعمالهم لها في تواصلهم، وذلك بالسعي إلى توضيح مفاهيمها من خلال القرآن الكريم، ومصادر عربية قديمة كاللسان والصحاح وتاج العروس ليتبين للناس ما وري عنهم، وما كان قد خفي أعظم.

A survey to estimate the environmental and economic impact of the increase in fuel consumption due to low pressure tires in DhiQar Governorate

RaadJawad; Jamal Tuma Nasser; TaqiRaadJawad

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

This study was conducted in Thi – Qar governorate at the year 2016 to realize the effect of access in fuel consumption as a result of low tyre air pressure on economical and ecological sides . Five sites were selected to carry out the study ( Qalaatsikar - Rifai - Shatra - Nasserrya and Suq–Al Shuookh garages ) .The total surveyed cars was 250 which be included by the study . The results showed that a high number of cars that their tyres pressure were lower than be designed and the percentage of these cars was 46% . This percentage causes an increase in fuel consumption ranged between 1956.881 to 4920.091 m3 , This quantity is very harmful on ecological and economical sides, it caused roaring between 880596450 to 2214040950 Iraqi dinar and caused access in Carbon Dioxide emission ranged between 5117.24 – 12866.03 Ton , Therefore this case must be treated to save ecology and national economy

Translational Problems in Transferring the Intended Meaning of Clarification Tropes in Shiite Discourse

Fareed H. H. Al-Hindawi; Hasan H. M. Abu-Krooz

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

The current paper is an attempt to identify the vital role that can be assumed by rhetorical pragmatics in the bridging translational gaps that characterize various kinds of the translations of Shiite religious discourses. It is believed that translators may not manage transferring the exact intended effect or illocutionary force from ST to TT. Thus, translators of religious texts and discourses, particularly Ahlulbait's traditions and Hadith, are supposed to familiarize themselves with pragmatic issues in general and rhetorical pragmatics-related ones in particular in order to handle some of the major translational pitfalls that characterize some of these translations. In other words, translators are expected to configure the right intended meaning and its concomitant perlocutionary effect through the use of pragma-rhetorical tropes. From a pragmatic perspective, the translator's job is to transfer the meaning and intended effect of the ST in a way that actualizes that meaning and its accompanying effect in the TT. Owing to this pragmatic premise, the study concerns itself with the task of establishing a pragma-rhetorical translational model to bridge the above-mentioned gap in translation. In association with this aim, the work hypothesizes that a certain set of pragma-rhetorical elements, namely: Clarificational Tropes, is the distinguishing feature of the data under investigation. It also hypothesizes that these clarificational tropes are utilized to exercise the intended meaning and its concomitant effect in the data of the work. To develop an analytical model for the data of the work, the relevant pragma-rhetorical tropes and translation models of analysis are reviewed and made use of in this regard. The data of this work are represented by relevant texts retrieved from the renowned speech of Fadak by Lady Fatimatulzahra (P.B.U.H.). The analysis reveals various findings on the basis of which the paper arrives at a number of conclusions which include: the pragma- rhetorical clarificational tropes assume a crucial part of the entire discourse under analysis. They consists of the tropes of metaphor, simile and irony. Metaphor is the most distinguishing feature of the texts, which is heavily used and generally mistranslated. Simile comes in the second place in the discourse scrutinized and it poses similar translational issues.

The Eioffect of Culture As a Sociolinguistic Variable on the Speech Act of bPraising , A Theoretical Study

Hashim Abdulla Hussein Al-Muradi; Majid Salih Khalaf

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

It is axiomatic that people praise each other , and rarely a day passes without witnessing a word of praise . This is because praising , like many other types of speech act , such as thanking , apologizing , congratulating … etc. , is not only a linguistic behaviour but it is a social behaviour . Being so, one cannot think that such an act may not be affected by sociolinguistic variables which, since the appearance of this descriptive branch of linguistic, has been affecting the way language is used . And hence the need of a study to undertake a sociolinguistic investigation into the system of the speech acts of praising. Culture is one of the most important sociolinguistic variables that affects the use of speech acts .In different cultures speech acts may mean different things . It , also, serves different purposes.In certain culture a speech act of praising is used to establish solidarity between speakers , and used in another culture to express approval or admiration toward the listener. In other words, praises can be considered social lubricants that serve to “create or maintain rapport.” A commonly seen phenomenon in human interaction, for instance, is that people frequently offer praise to reinforce or encourage the desired behavior in specific situations, such as teaching and learning. People in different cultures may tend to praise things more than other people in different cultures .People May praise the appearances of someone such as his clothes , hair , eyes …etc. People of other culture may not give such importance to appearance, instead they concentrate on the person's intelligence , behaviour or performance

An investigation of the role of stem cells in explaining bodily resurrection

GhodsiehAkbari; MarziyehAbyari; SeyedMortezaHosseiniShahroudi; AfzalBolouki

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

Bodily resurrection is one of the most important issues in the field of religion. Proving and explaining it as well as answering its relevant objections have constituted one of the most fundamental concerns of theologians, religion philosophers, and other men of faith. One of the objections to the materiality of resurrection is the theory of the eater and the eaten, variously answered by Islamic thinkers. However, receiving inadequate responses, it has ensued serious problems. Using the findings of genetics, this paper presents a new version of the theory of the main components of the body (one of the responseswith a focus on hadith) that will prove bodily resurrection, be generalizable, and make sense to common readers.

The Effect of Slip-writing Teaching Technique on the Performance of University EFL Students in Essay Writing


Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

The present study aims at investigating The Effect of Slip-writing teaching technique on the performance of university EFL Students in essay writing. Quasi experimental design with a non –randomized control group, pretest-posttest is adopted. The sample of the present study includes (87) male and female college students selected from 3rd year university students of ThiQar university ,College of Education for Human Sciences, Department of English Language.Face validity and reliability coefficient of the pretest/posttest have been computed.Two independent sample t-test formulas have been used. Final results reveal thatthere is statistically significance difference between the two groups. This means that the experimental group students have proved to be better in their essay writing because they were taught by using the slip-writing technique..Finally, suitable conclusions and recommendations are put forward.

Using Speech acts and Maxims in Selected Summary Leads in News Web-version of American Agencies : A Pragmatic Study

Hayder Hameed

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

News has parts and each part gives information about what happened and what happens . For that reason , the study focuses on the second part of news which is lead . Lead is somehow short and brief in order to shed light on some points of the news leaving other points to the paragraphs that come after . To explain the pragmatic aspects of leads , this study shows the influence of using maxims and how violating the quantity maxim never hinders the message of introducing the news with general ideas in leads . The study also states the use of speech acts which have the sense of informing more than the other ones . The data of analysis is about three American agencies with forty-five samples of news about different matters in breaking news

Islamophobia : Media Vs. Drama, A Study in Wajahat Ali's "The Domestic Crusaders"

Ghassan F. Radhi

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

In the new world, man comes to be alienated as a result to his ethnic and beliefs. Beliefs are varied due to the distinctions in the place or the way of living. Media comes to be one of the most important tools that explain and shape these beliefs and conceptions to the public opinion in any means that may match its goal and tendency. Absolute truth in media is a big lie. Consequently, honor and ethics stand naked on the shore of legitimacy. By directing the lights on the issues of certainty and reliability, it comes to be clear that media plays a great role in presenting the image of Islam to the public in a way that matches its ends. Accordingly, the black clouds still hover above the heads of Muslims all around the world.
Nevertheless, literature stands on the next shore to media by having different views and aims. Some writers like John Updike in his best selling novel Terrorist which have received positive reviews and Wajahat Ali in his two-acts play The Domestic Crusaders among other American fiction writers have responded to the 11 September attacks in a different conduct to what have been presented by media. These writers are trying their best to correct the disfigured image of Islam throughout their works. Hence, this study tries to illustrate the role of media in presenting the flawed image of Islam along with the literature that served as a counterpart to this progress of action in which Islam is the core of debate.
Wajahat Ali's play The Domestic Crusaders is the centre of discussion in this paper which is divided into two sections. The first section is establishing clearly the ideas that stand behind the term "Islamophobia" as well as the role of media. The second section presents the touches of Islamophobia and the unsupportive role of media in Ali's play. The conclusion sums up the main findings.

L’Esthétique de L’image poétique

Mohamed Hassan Hussein; AlaaShatnan Ayes

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

Cette étude intitulée « l’esthétique de l’image poétique » présentée par l’enseignant Ala Shatnan Al-Temimi et l’enseignant assistant Mohammad Hassan Hussain, traite l’image poétique et le rôle de l’imagination dans sa production . La poésie, en tant que liberté d’âme, nous ouvre un vaste horizon qui est celui de l’image poétique. Cette dernière est capable de nous dire et de dire le monde. Par ses multiples suggestions, par l’explosion de ses sens, elle peut enrichir notre expérience et notre vision du monde et de l’homme.. Ce qui est difficile à exprimer, ce qui est indicible prend sa profondeur, son expressivité et sa beauté avec l’image. L’image littéraire, en général, est une émanation de l’imagination, elle est l’imagination elle-même dans son activité absolue. C’est ellequi peut sonder ce qui existe au de-là des apparences, découvrir les mystères et transformer les données de la vie en sens symboliques et en images. Pour celaBchelard considère l’imagination comme une force productrice des images qui se privilégient d’une épaisseur sémantique qui provoque l’imagination du destinataire et elle l’invite à être le partenaire du poète dans la production du texte poétique .

An Evaluation of John Burton's Research on the Collection of the Qur’ān in the Encyclopedia of the Qur’ān

Rahman Oshriyeh; Ali Mohammad Mir Jalili; Sayyed Mahdi Mirzababayi

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

A precise understanding of the orientalists' opinions about the qur’ānic and Islamic knowledge and a scientific evaluation of their viewpoints is an undeniable necessity for Muslims. Accordingly, the article at hand aims at evaluation of John Burton's research on the collection of the Qur’ān. The study adopts a library research method through an analytic-critical approach, though this should not be taken to mean that descriptive methods have not been used. Burton's research manifests his extensive investigation of the qur’ānic and Islamic sources. The information that he has reported in his research indicates that the traditions on the collection of the Qur’ān started to extend and evolve in the third century AH. Nonetheless, he has not tried to explain that whether any source historically substantiates his illustration of the evolution of these traditions or not. This is the most important criticism against Burton's research on the issue of the collection of the Qur’ān.