Will and its concept in the verse of cleansing

Mohsen Haidari; Sayed Mohamed

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

The meaning of determination in “Tathir (purification) verse” directly affects confirming or rejecting the infallibility of Ahl-ul-Bait. The majority of Imamia scholars demonstrate and confirm this infallibility through creational confirmation in Tathir verse. The majority of the Sunni scholars who believe in the legislative aspect of determination in Tathir verse reject infallibility for Ahl-ul-Bait. This study is an attempt to demonstrate the creational aspect of the determination in Tathir verse, clarifying the uncertainty of determination being opposite free will and prove the infallibility of Ahl-ul-Bait. Of course, some of the Imamia scholars have tried to confirm the infallibility of Ahl-ul-Bait through the primacy of certainty, despite confirming the legislative aspect of the determination of Ahl-ul-Bait. Some other Imamia scholars have showed their belief in the “confirmatory determination” in Tathir verse to escape the uncertainty about the opposition between creational determination and free will. In other words, the intention of determination in Tathir verse is neither creational determination nor legislative determination. Then Ahl-ul-Bait are infallible through the divine confirmation. In this research, of course, the latter two theories have been examined and criticized and the creational aspect of determination has

Yemen's political conditions in the Islamic era through the book of the lexicon of the countries of Liaqut al-Hamawi (d. 626 AH / 1228 AD)

wafy Mohamed Attia; HatemKarimJayyad

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

The study, titled "The political conditions of Yemen in the Islamic era through the book Dictionary of countries of sapphire Hamwi addressed (Tel: 626 e / 1228 m)," the case of Yemen from the two axes foundations, it has dealt with the first axis "enter Yemen in Islam" as it highlighted the researcher highlights immigration, as well as for apostasy movements after the spread of Islam in the Arabian Peninsula, Yemen was one of the provinces, and they relate to invite the Prophet (Allah bless him and his family), he sent her from calling her family to Islam and there were several campaigns headed to Yemen with a view to edit and invite the family to Islam Voslmwa then after that Yemen has become one of the most important regions in the Islamic Arab state, while taking second axis "Yemen in the era of the caliphate and the Islamic state as the researcher the case of Yemen in the eras of the Umayyad and Abbasid until the death of Sapphire Hamwi (Tel: 626 e / 1228 m)", This research has come to the conclusions, including the history of Yemen has passed several historical stages, including the stage of Islamic history since the beginning of the Islamic Dawa and its impact on immigration as well as the owner of the Islamic Dawa of apostasy from Islam and the position of the people of Yemen, including through was confirmed by Sapphire Hamwi movements as well as the rest of the historical sources .

The political activity of Mahmoud Talqani in the Iranian revolution until September 1979

DrFaleh Hassan Ali Hamdani; Mohammed Hussein MatarHashim

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

Sought Mahmoud Taleqani after the victory of the revolution in Iran in February 1979 to work as the effort in order to succeed in spite of the observations that were Aahrha on the activity of the Revolutionary Committees, which was the military wing of the religious stream hardline led by Mr. Khomeini, I have tried some of the forces creating a rift between Mahmoud Taleqani the leaders of the revolution, others for personal goals, but Mahmoud Taleqani alerted to it and spoil all the attempts that have occurred during the first months of life of the Iranian revolution, FmahmoudTalqani he believed that some of the practices that have been happening from some of the revolutionary committees that came often to the level of inhibition freedoms, but it was not a reason for standing up against the overall objective of the revolution to rid the Iranian people from the injustice that was suffered over the past decades and that calls for concerted efforts from all secular nationalist forces were or religious.

The effectiveness of a proposed training program based on competencies in providing students with the skills of classroom teaching

Abdul HusseinShaker Sultani

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

The purpose of the research is to identify the effectiveness of a proposed training program based on competencies in providing students with the skills of classroom teaching. To achieve this, a training program has been established that contains the professional competencies required for students in the education colleges in Iraq. (80) students. A note card and a statistical test were used by the researcher to collect the data. The mean, standard deviations, T value, and statistical data processing were used The results of the study were a number of results, the most important of which is the existence of a statistical significance difference between the average of the responses of the experimental and control groups on the post-test of cognitive achievement and for the benefit of the experimental group which was trained according to the proposed training program. The results also showed a statistically significant difference between the average of the experimental group answers on tribal and post- The results showed that the effect of the performance of female students was significant after the post application of the observation card. The research concluded with a number of recommendations, the most important of which is the necessity of implementing the training program. For a proposal on the subject of teaching applications for students of the fourth year in the colleges of education and basic education in Iraqi universities

The creation of the characters in the story of what is happening in the light of the theory of conceptual blending language and literature

Fatima Takhti; HassinMarashi

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

Shagh al-Sadr's narrative happened in a way that makes human mind to struggle between imaginary and reality world and it unifies them in such a way that the wisdom can hardly distinguish the boundary between them.
Shagh al-Sadr's narrative language makes human mind to struggle between imaginary and reality world and it unifies them in such a way that the wisdom can hardly distinguish the boundary between them. this story begins with a real and regular image. children drowned in their own world and are busy with playing and fun. everything is normal until suddenly two people come in and change the story line. they appear in the form of human but their behavior and deeds are different with human characteristics. it’s remarkable that how the caviling reader goes between these mental spaces and finally can get to a clear and solid image. in other words, how the story reader’s mind analyzes these unusual deeds.
In fact, in order to accept this strange story, the mind must be able to communicate between real and imaginary spaces and unites them that it will be impossible to separate them.
Therefore, conceptual blending theory allows the mind to use multiple and related mental spaces that have different meanings. Then it combines them together and can examine these different meanings in an efficient and proper way and achieve the semantic network constituting mental spaces.
In this research, we show how, by referring to the components and processes underlying the conceptual mixture theory, we can show the way of illustration in the story and construct of meaning according to the component of the continuity of meaning in Shagh al-Sadr's narrative. We also show how to use an idea of the four spatial concepts of conceptual blending theory, as well as processes such as combining, completing and extending, and principles such as defiance and principle of access, creating and maintaining the continuity and consistency between images.

The effect of using problem solving method in the development of mathematical thinking among fourth grade preparatory students in Najaf governorate

Hussein Nima Abdel - Husseini

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

The aim of this thesis is to investigate the effect of an educational problems solving for understanding on obtaining on obtaining mathematics and lateral thinking of 4th year secondary school for female strudels.
The research population was composed of female secondary schools students in Najaf.
(140) female students in fourth grade secondary female school was selected randomly as the sample of the study and was divided in two groups . An experimental set of (70) female student.
A regulating set who learned according to thetraditionalmethael covalence was made between the two group of the variables ( prior grade in mathematics , intelligence level , prior needs , lateral thinking , age ).
Statistical analysis was done , to find the acertainty of the cychometric properties for each scale and using the statistical tools to analyze the results.

Adopting a knowledge management strategy and its role in achieving educational quality standards. Analytical study of the sample of university teachers

Khalidiya Mustafa Atta; Ziad Ali Abbas

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

This research aims to identify the relationship between knowledge strategy (Tacit & Explicit) and educational quality standards , It was done by analyzing the correlations and influence between variables, applied to a random sample of university professors at the University of Kufa .
The main tool for data collection is the survey questionnaires were distributed randomly to the professors , and test its validity by using (SEM) (Structural Equation Modeling), Hypothesis has been tested by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS v. 18), The research found a set of conclusions:(The knowledge cultivation has a positive influence on the educational quality standards), and make some recommendations.

The linguistic creativity in the words of Imam Ali ()

Maitham Mahdi Saleh Al-Hamami

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

فهذه دراسة في كلام لشخصية من شخصيات العرب التي حظيت باهتمام الدارسين في شتى صنوف المعرفة ، أردت فيها أن تكون لي إسهامة في بيان أسرار تفوق هذا الكلام على كثير من كلام العرب في زمن القرآن وما أحدثه فيهم ، من خلال عرض موجز لثقافة الإمام وما يمكن أن يكون مؤثرا فيه ، معتمدا على أهم الدراسات التي تعرضت لذلك ، فكان هذا ميدانه التمهيد الذي عُنونَ بـ(علي والإبداع)درءا لأية شبهة تُلوّح بأن أسلوب النصوص في ما جمع من كلام الإمام لا يعود إلى سمات زمنه ،ولكي يُترجم الكلام بنحو تطبيقي أَخذَ البحث على عاتقه دراسة كلام الإمام في ثلاثة مستويات ، الأول كان معنيا بالإبداع في الانتقاء الصوتي ، والثاني تخصص في بيان دقة الإمام في اختيار المفردة بما ينسجم مع غرضه ، وكانت محطة البحث الثالثة في التراكيب وما تميزت به الجملة في كلامه ، أعقبتُ ذلك بخاتمة بيّنتُ فيها نتائج الدراسة .

Ways to get rid of fear among poets of tree fervor (the door of intensity and courage model)

Maysaa Salah and Dai Al-Salami

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

Counting hair enthusiasm tree (the door of intensity and courage) barometer feat of choosing courageous measures is illustrated by Banchadhm notice radiate enthusiasm and defiance and rejection of fear, research has proved the following:
- That feeling of fear Jabbar perched on the human psyche to impose among other actions to choose from on relief since his environment and kissed her manners.
- The challenge was the most prominent ways of eliminating fear when poets enthusiasm tree, and he expressed this challenge by methods of linguistic variety, including, poets use to the style of question in conjunction with the wording (Auadna, lead me) to a very Astinkarah of the poet.
- Self and tribe pride was the most prominent methods of poets to intimidate enemies and eliminate a sense of fear, which enthuses brave pounce on an opponent and get rid of it the battle of psychological cool, and we find them invest mentioned war days that won it, or the bravest tribes that Aktzhoha and set up its place. ..
- Resort poets sometimes to surrender to the inevitable, and it's only when you recognize the inevitability of death, death that can not escape from it, and it turns out that when the poets ignorant, and either in the Islamic era have realized that things in its entirety is the ability of the orders of God and is God's no alternative to him.
- It was to escape the simple presence brought him one anti poets who fled from strength Messenger of Allah (r) in one of his fights.
- Realized poets brave to eliminate the fear kits is reported preparing war and the magnitude fighter in the battlefield, so we find them tend to census

A manifestation of the social life of Egypt in the Mamluk era MousaMoussawi

Samir Saleh Hassan Omar; NawalTurki; RashaFadelKadhim

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

The research concluded that one of the social life demonstrations in Egypt in the age of Al MaMalik's can be reached to the following brief results :
1. Many different demonstrations can be appeared in Egypt that they have very vital role in the Egyptian community which included many things that one of them is women and they have too much respect and consideration for their distinguished estate in the community and different fields of daily life. As well as the evident role in changing the requirements of living through freedom of expression that women should have at that time.
2. The Egyptian community had too much demonstration of luxury which had been shown through the dresses of its community and they had been made the best quality of cloth in Egypt at that time . as a result these demonstrations had also shown the economic progress which Egypt had had in the age of Al MaMalik's.

The succession of the three caliphs in the balance - the interpretations of the two groups as a model

Adel SelmaniNazad; RaufSabhani

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

The caliphate after the death of the Prophet (PBUH) in both teams is considered an important issue and a general presidency for all Muslims in this world In order to establish the provisions of Islamic law, carry the Islamic call to the world, and establish a successor imposed on all Muslims in all countries of the world and to do, such as the fulfillment of any of the assumptions imposed by God on Muslims and is imperative not to choose and uncompromising in it, and failure to do disobedience One of the greatest sins, Allaah will punish them with the greatest punishment. While the Shiites believe that the position of the Caliphate and the Imamate is the position of God and the entry of the people in it because the Imam in the concept of the Koran must be pure cleansed of any abomination and be a believer and informed and masterminded and Muslim affairs in the Hereafter and the Hereafter, and see the three caliphs are human beings and believe after The Apostle (r) The caliphs are the twelve imams of the pure Nabawi dynasty, the first of which is the emir of the believers, Ali Ibn Abi Talib, the door of Madinah, But the second group (Ahl al-Sunnah) sees the imamate and caliphate as an organizational and executive character for the head of the Islamic state and for the preservation and realization of the interests of the Muslims and enters the Qur'an or the Prophet (pbuh) and believes that the best people after the ablutions in the caliphate are Abu Bakr, And respect for their words because they are the righteous ancestors to be followed This research, through the budget curriculum, presents and examines the interpretations of the two groups through the Qur'anic verses on the succession of the three successors.

The coup d'état in Cuba and its reflection on developments in the general situation in Cuba

AymanKazemHajim; Ebadi Ahmed Ebadi

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

The research dealt with the military coup that took place in Cuba in 1933 and how it affected the developments in Cuba at various levels and in particular political, economic, social and diplomatic spheres both internally and externally. Highlighting the pivotal and vital role played by the dictator of Cuba, General Batista, through his rule the government in Cuba through the manipulation and rigging of the elections and the coming of rulers and presidents to carry out the same time and cancel the elections and the inauguration of himself as another president present support and support of the US administration, which found in his person the best and best support In order to preserve the survival and sustainability of its interests in Cuba, which inevitably, but certainly will benefit the companies of interest and capital US investors in Cuba at the time and secure itself from the dangers of externalstrategic by securing the limits of strategy And security through Cuba's pro-government through its governments. This is what happened in Cuba, where the governments of the coup d'état took power for nearly a decade.

Alastahab between the suspicions of judgment and objectivity

NawalAyed

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

Presumption of continuity with regard to uncertainty about rulings or subject-mattersPresumption of continuity is part of technical terms in the field of (principles of jurisprudence) and it is defined as (continuation of what has proven to exist)It is one of the most important practical principles.
When the person who is obliged with religious duties is certain about a particular matter, and later entertains some doubt about it, which disables him to have access to reality, presumption of continuity to stick to the previous certainty.
The matter which one was sure and certain about, and later entertained doubt may be a religious ruling or a subject-matter.
The question now is whether presumption of continuity applies to both cases or there are different oprinions about it?

(Abuse of the right to discipline

Rudeineh Mohammed Reza Majid; Kraiti; Haider Al

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

That the law decides to use the right as a reason for permitting criminalization and clarifies the means necessary to use this right, and before the law provides for the rights and means of use in this regard, we find that the principles of Shari'a law and its optimal provisions are fair and applicable at all times and places are the foundation of rights and the source of freedoms and the guarantee of non-abuse It is therefore used to interpret and apply the provisions of the use of the right, especially the right to discipline towards the wife and minor children with the rules of Islamic jurisprudence, which organized this subject organization very precise and proficiency in a manner not reached by the latest laws developed.
And the right of discipline in this regard and in accordance with the rules of Islamic jurisprudence is governed by controls and determinants, the most important of which is to seek the corrective, reform and guidance, not revenge, preceded by the sermon and be in exchange for disobedience from the wife or children and be through a light beating by hand not exceeding three blows in places not dangerous, The use of the right of discipline exceeds these limits. It is arbitrary to use its right, which exposes it to legal accountability in both its criminal and civil aspects, and therefore the criminal and civil laws have regulated the use of the right and the consequences of violating it or the arbitrariness of its use have legal consequences.
Article 41 of the Iraqi Penal Code No. 111 of 1969 provides for the following: (a) No offense if the act is committed using a right established by law and is considered a use of the right:
1 - Discipline husband wife and disciplining parents and teachers and those under their children minors within the limits of what is prescribed by law or law or custom.)

Army of the Kingdom of Alhira organization and functions

Abbas Aajel Jassim al; Haidari

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

Al- Hira kingdom is one of the pre-Islamic important kingdoms, a coeval with the Sassanid state, lasted for more than four centuries, supporting its ally(the Sassanid state) in its conflict and struggle against the Byzantine and their ally( the Ghassanid).
Its long age within an area of continuons struggle and military crises indicates that it has a strong, well organized and qualified army. Al- Hira army consisted of four battalions( Al-Shehbaa, Al-Sana’e, Dawser and Al-Reha’en). They performed great tasks and missions, separately or altogether, such as supporting the Sassanid against the Ghassanid or the Byzantine, protecting the Western boundaries of the two states and establishing the domination of Al-Hira on the Arab tribes to the North and East side of the Arab peninsula in addition to its participation in the Sassanid interior conflict during the era of BehramJor.
The important role of Al-Hira Kingdom army had weakened and decreased with the assassination of the last king of Al-Hira( Al-No’eman bin Al-Mundher) by the Sassanid. The boundaries became opened for the Arab tribes like Beno-Beker who had defeated the Sassanid army in the battle of Dhi-Qhar. The attacks had continued in weakening the Sassanid state to fall later by the Muslims.

Evaluation of the situation of drinking water service in the city of Baghdad

Wahab Ahmed Abdel Wahab; Yasmine Hassan Jabbar

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

تعد البنية التحتية جوهرا للتنمية وان مدى جودتها له الاثر كبير في رقي او تدني الهيكل العمراني للمدن القائمة وتحقيق الرفاهية والمتطلبات الاساسية لساكنيها والحفاظ على الصحة العامة وتعاني مدينة بغداد من تردي كبير في واقع خدمات البنى التحتية المقدمة للمواطنين ولخدمة الماء اهمية خاصة لارتباطها بالصحة العامة وبحياة المواطنين حيث يرتبط اعمال حوالي نصف سكان العالم بمدى توفر خدمة الماء فهو يدخل بالزراعة والصناعة والبناء والانشاءات وغيرها من القطاعات ولاهمية هذا القطاع لابد دراسة مدى مطابقته للمعايير الموضوعة وان كان ذا نوعية وكمية جيدة كافية لاحتياجات المواطن

The era of Taher bin al-Hussein to his son Abdullah "a study in administrative policy through the book of the history of the Apostles and kings of Tabri"

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

The research is an assessment of the entrustment letter of Tahir, the leader of the Tahirian family and "Wali" governor of Kharasan "Persia" in the era of Muslim Calif "Al-Maamon " TahirIbn Al-hussein to his son Abdullah , who later was appointed as the Wali of Riqaa the document was mentioned in the history of prophets and kings of author AbiGaffar Mohammed bin Jareer AL –Tabari , chapter 11 Ledenedition of (1882-1883). The entrustment litter is high significance administration in considering the fact that it is comprehensive to the Arabic Islamic adadministration policy in all its dimensions Additionally , it is considered administration policy portfolio that can be read and revised its interpretations in any time . it is worth to de read by policy –makers who aspire to establish Islamic style systems . the longevity of the entrustment letters and its comprehensive had us focus specifically the distinctive features and duties of the governor that form the main axes of the research paper .

Strategic Fitness and its Role in Achieving Marketing Excellence An analytical study of the opinions of a sample of managers in the sponsor company

Musawi; Kawthar Hamid Hani Al

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

The research aims to identify the role of strategic agility in its sub-dimensions (clarity of vision , understanding core capabilities, selected strategic targets , shared responsibility ,taking action) as an independent variable in marketing ambidexterity as a dependent variable through its dimensions (Explore opportunities, Exploit opportunities and marketing flexibility). The questionnaire was chosen as a main tool for collecting data, which included (32) items for the research variables by (20) (SPSS v.22, AMOSv.22) . Using a number of statistical methods and indicators, the research results in a set of variables, The most important conclusions are that there is a positive correlation between positive variables For research at the macro level and the level of
sub-exclusion, and that the strategic elegance of different dimensions significantly affect marketing prowess, which means that the company's participation of responsibility and the identification of strategic objectives and take action in a timely manner, would contribute to the company is proficient marketing of Where the ability to explore and exploit the opportunities available The research concluded a number of recommendations, the most important of which is the company to increase its level of interest in strategic agility and because it is important to achieve its future directions, by setting a clear vision of what you want to be The company in the future as well as the establishment of strategic objectives divided by the period and specific periods of time so that can be followed up and verify the extent of completion on time.

The effectiveness of the training courses in the centers of handicrafts in the lesson of art education (reality and ambition)

AmalObaidKazem

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

Previously, curriculums for training courses used to be designed for a stable world, while now our world is in continuous change surrounded by local and universal challenges, such as the explosion of knowledge; technological development and looking at the world because of speed of communication. The world becomes a small village. All that requires exerting special efforts to develop thinking minds which are able to solve problems which are responsible for education nowadays.
Education is supposed to produce good thinkers not only active and able thinkers but also are characterized with observation while thinking people who are eager to discover and understand their world.
That requires advance tools to achieve it because stereotyped in education stops innovative abilities and doesn’t lead to prepare active teachers who are able to produce everything needed for comprehensive development.
Training programs are required to review methods which were followed to train teachers so that these programs can pave the way for future programs.
The research includes four chapters with recourses and appendices.
The research included four chapters, the first chapter included the problem of research and its importance and need, which is reflected in the evaluation of the reality of the effectiveness of teaching courses in the centers of manual work and highlight the plans and programs of the ministerial and local, and the research aims to reveal the need of teacher and teacher in the requirements of work on the technical and theoretical And practical to develop efficiency and raise the disclosure of new methods and mechanisms proposed for the courses.
The second chapter includes the theoretical framework of the research and consists of four topics. The first topic dealt with the methods and methods of effective training for teachers and teachers. The second section included the entrance of manual works and general objectives and data for manual works.
The third topic dealt with the history of the establishment of the centers of manual works and the general foundations for training and the centers of manual works, their objectives, the content of the training courses and the most important problems and introductions facing the training courses. The fourth topic dealt with art education and the development of talent and creativity and the general objectives of artistic education.
The fourth chapter included the results and conclusions, which included the educational and personal data through the questionnaire of teachers and teachers, as well as the results of teachers and teachers, the most important of which is the impact on the development of plans, programs and scientific and technical means of modern , And the most important conclusions prepare students and students for the future, acquire the skill, flexibility and rapid response to change and evolution with sources and supplement .

Formal Properties and Geomorphological Depths of the Shakak Valley, Eastern Province of Maysan Governorate, Iraq

Bashar F. Maarouf

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

The study examined the most important geological characteristics and the geomorphological evidence of the Shakak Valley, one of the seasonal valleys of the eastern region of Misan, which is located near the Iraqi-Iranian border and is in the north-east-south-west direction of (99,485) km 2 with an area of 53,949 km. The most important natural factors (geological structure, surface, climate, water resources) were studied in the formation of morphological properties, as well as the most important geomorphological processes that prevailed during the Pleistocene era, The composition of these morphological characteristics (rotation, elongation, length and width ratio, form factor, spawning coefficient) and the main sump basin (4) secondary basins was 0.423. This is a reference to the pelvis approaching the circular shape. The elongation ratio was 0.672, The ratio of length to width was 2.217, and it also indicated that the basin diverged from the rectangular shape and was close to the vertical shape, while the value of the form factor was 1.313. This is a reference to the distancing of the basin from the triangle shape. The value of 0.308 This refers to the state of integration and harmony between the area and the ocean.

Irrigation in Iraq in the late Ottoman era in the light of British reports The report of Sir George Buchanan model ((historical study))

RaghadFalah AbdulKazem Al Khazraji

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

The history of Iraq's economic and modern and contemporary modern, one of the most important subjects that need to study a large scientific, historians rarely touched on this history, which undoubtedly helps to understand more accurately and deeply to understand the country's political events and economic and social development, and irrigation in Iraq in the late Ottoman era one Of the topics of this history, which did not get the attention of many researchers, especially in the British reports and hence came the choice of the subject of research.
The two rivers (Tigris and Euphrates) have the advantage of carrying silt, which means that the surface of the country where they flowed gradually increased due to silt deposited when the water overflows on land, has got the largest deposits near land, and the high flow of the river above the level of the surrounding ground, The two rivers are significantly lower for the lowest level of the earth and this is different from other rivers of the same species as the Yellow River in Chinasam
The engineering survey of the country and the rivers is a necessary condition before spending money on investment projects. When Sir William Wilcox's survey was of great value and importance, but the survey was carried out in the most difficult and demanding circumstances, it was criticized by Sir George Buchanan for all the work

The social effects of pre-emptive wars in Iraq for the period 1990-2003

Ali Rahim AssalMohaimed; NashwanRazak al - Musawi

Adab Al-Kufa, In Press

The social effects of pre-emptive wars are the subject of all countries where these wars have left devastating effects on all peoples, including the Iraqi people at present and in the future of the past years, including hunger, poverty, the demolition of schools, the demolition of houses and hospitals, and the killing of thousands of citizens. In the third, we studied the American occupation of Iraq, and the destruction of the country's infrastructure.