The Specification of the Areas of Worest and Poorest Environmental Status in Hilla City

Mohammad Ali Al-Anbary; Abdul Sahib Najy Al-Baghdady; Ladin Taha

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages 11-20

This research includes an evaluation of the state of some areas in Hilla City, to determine which of them have the worst environment and the more poorness. This evaluation had been achieved depending on three factors; population, services and environment, and physical factors. Seven areas had been studied in the city and the scores of each area for each factor had estimated. The total of scores will help to arrange the areas due to the worst environment and the more poorness. From other side, these will help the decision maker to determine the priorities of the urban local development.

Ali Al-Wardy- His Environment, his Origination, and his Educational Efforts - A Historical Study

a Hussein Al-Riheimy; All; Ali Tahir Al-Hilly

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages 21-84

Ali Ali Alwardi represents part of the pioneers academics generation in Iraq , who enrich with their synthesis, scientific and ideological writings , the cultural movement in the second half of twentieth century , he was one of the partners with touchable clarity of the cultural and agnostic situated of the country on the academic and non academics levels , this truth formed the first motive to select this subject to be studied
Ali Alwardi is an intellective personality , elected by-word in pioneers academic media , he didn't get academic , scientific studying in the historical field….that was another motive with in the motives which reinforced the convinces to go on with his efforts In the beginning he gave an abstract for the (ALkadhmya) history ,it is was the first environmental in which he born and grow up , the researcher had projected the lights upon the social and popular composition beside a glimpsing about the more prominent knowledge conduits such as men of religion and culture ,and such as the councils of literature, besides several hysterical events which participate in effecting changes ( even though it was slowly) generally in the Iraqi Society and specially in the holy shrines in it's vanguard the two constitutional revolutions Iranian and the Uthmanian with all what they had of thoughts and concepts about constitution ,freedom, democracy, despotism , tyranny , social equalitarian, multi politics and other concepts which affected deeply in the people realization followed by the upturning it's first world war and what resulted by the Uthmanic occupation and then the British deputizing.
Finally the researchers made stop at his beginning of educational trip reaching to the academic period with his efforts to get his knowledge , all these had affected to furbishing his character and his academic bounteous along all his stages of function.

Prologue in Al-Asha'ira

Basima Jasim Khanger

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages 85-95

A later generation of the Ash;arites,named after ‘Al-Ash airborne ( A.D. 873 –260 H) in Basrsh . They are forced by the weight of evidence to admit a certain irrationality in theological’ and their philosophical speculatio, Largely based on Stoicism, are strongly mixed with Skeptical theories . They hold the middle way between the traditionalists who want to forbid all reasoning on religious matters and those who affirm that reason unaided by revelation is capable of attaining religious truths. since Ghazali founds his attack against the philosophers on Ash’arite principles,
we may consider for a moment some their theories. The difference between the Ash’arite and Mu’tazilite conceptions of cannot be expressed then by the following passage which is found twice in Ghazali in his Golden Means of Dogmatics and his Vivification of Theology is and to which by tradition ascribed the breach between AL Ash’ari and the Mu’tazilites.
{Let us imagine a child and a grown-up Heaven who both died in the True Faith, but the grown-up a higher place than the child. And the child will ask God,“ Why did you give that man a higher place ?” And God will answer," He has done many good work.” Then the child will say," Why did you let me die so soon so that I was prevented from doing well?” God will answer,” I knew that you would grow up a sinner, therefore it was better than you should die a child.” Then a cry goes up from the damned in the depths of Hell, “Why O Lord, did you not let us die before we became sinner?”}

The British Agency in Muscat- Its Political Position and Administrative Economical Tasks 1899-1914

Muqdam Abdul Hassan Baqir

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages 96-126

The British Political Agency in Muscat was not an ordinary diplomatic headquarters, but also a many-sided institution of different purposes ( political, economic, and social). All of these purposes serve the British interests and their administration all over Oman and the Arab Gulf Rejoin, especially during this period of time ( 1913- 1899 ) which is characterized by its prosperity and quick events as it witnessed the climax of the European colonial activity that aims at competing Britain and sharing its dominance and influences on the rejoin, and this created non-preceded political pressure on the British Agency in Muscat and caused so many difficulties and complications.
The study of the administrative framework and the political position of the Agency has a great importance, as it represents one example to understand the truth of the British policy in an active part of the Arab rejoin, and to be aware of the way of their thinking and know one necessary instrument of their state's power. Besides, it gives a clear vision about the organization, finance, membership, and field actions of their representatives, beyond deeply discussion about the details of the political developments the country passed through during that time, as it is enough for the researcher to refer to them according to his research's demands.
The research required to be divided into three sections. The first is considered as a historical introduction to the subject, in which the researcher tried to introduce a brief survey about the rise and development of the political agencies' system in the Arab Gulf and the position of Muscat among them. The second is devoted for the study and development of the agencies' role in the political and economic life in Oman, and the position the Indian executives gave to the successive representatives of Muscat, in addition to the nature of their intelligence and relations with the foreign communities, especially the Indian ones. As for the third section, it dealt with the agents' life and that of those who work with them in Muscat, focusing on the study of the building the political agency made as its headquarters, the health center related with it, and what is called as " The Agency Court" that made the exceptional prerogatives granted to the agents an opportunity to impose wide judicial power in Muscat.

Meaning Particles inHudhaleyeens Diwan

Hassan Abdul Majeed Abbas

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages 127-144

The meaning Particles have a great value in the Arabic. Without them the meanings the speaker intends would be lost. They contend for precedence among each other to express the intended meaning. They are many in Arabic and can be classified in the shape of semantic groups such as the interrogative particles the negative particles and the conditional particles.
Through counting and classifying those particles according to their meanings, tried to know to what extent the rule applies to the use of hudhayl poets. It is clear that there are particles that were greatly used by them, besides many others that are different from what is know in the grammatical media. the grammatical rule founding the books of grammar is not clear – cut , it may traverse that. what is came in the standard Arabic is Arabic , and hudhayl is an Arabic tribe from which the standard Arabic is taken, in addition to Tameem Assad, Taye,, Qays, and kinana

The Role of Jewish Philosophy in Developing the Concept of Divinity

Fikry Jewad Abd

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages 145-173

This study deals with the concept of divinity in Judaism and how this concept evolved and graduated by taking up and analyzing the old Testament (Torah) texts showing up their written down defects that came for accusing the Torah to be to much daring on God due to texts bear a resemblance for the Creator with Creature in qualities and passions in such away that doesn’t fit to the supreme status of divinity.
Also, this study explores the contribution degree of the Jewish Philosophy raised up in an Islamic environment of thought and culture in developing the divinity notion among Jews. Such exploration would drive those accusations away from al-torah and restore its sanctity by removing the unclearness and setting up new reading for the Torah that harmonize with the completeness and lustiness of divinity. The Jewish philosopher Musa Bin Memon was the sample of this study for his answers and thoughts in his book (Dalalet al-Ha'ereen) (=the Guide of the Visitants) in which he used the method of metaphor and interpretation in order to avoid the superficial meaning of the Torah's texts sounding their hidden features so that he can reach the real meaning by which he contributed in a way or another in correcting and developing the concept of divinity among Jews.

Industrial Pollution in Al Najaf Al Ashraf Governorate

Mohammad Jewad Abbas

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages 174-194

Throughout concentrating at the problem of the industrial pollution, we can find solution thus increasing the effectiveness of industry and its ability to develop the region in various aspects of life without causing damage. So this research deals with the effect of industry on the environment throughout field study which has been achieved by the researcher in the great industrial institutions in Al-Najaf governorate.
The problem of this research concerns with the industrial pollution in Al-Najaf governorate especially the industries that pollute the air and the damage they cause and its effects on the living beings in this governorate.
The supposition of this research is the existence of a pollution problem resulted from the industrial activities in the governorate which causes great damages on health in the governorate environment.
This study aims at revealing the environmental effects of the polluted industries in Al-Najaf governorate and recognizing the type of the polluted industry and size of pollution which it causes, then finding the appropriate solutions to limit its effects.
This research sheds light on the industrial pollution in Al-Najaf governorate through dealing with the environmental pollution and the problem of industrial pollution, the kinds of pollution caused by industry in the governorate (air pollution, water pollution and soil pollution). The research has been closed by the conclusions and recommendations as well as a list of references which the researcher has depend on.

The Dictionary Use at the University of Kufa: A Case Study

Nadhum Raheem Al Salami; Huda Abd Ali Hattab

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages 29-71

It seems self- evident that dictionary consultation constitutes an important stage in the process of language learning. Dictionaries provide students with valuable information in all aspects of language. They include phonological, morphological, syntactical and semantic information in addition to etymological and usage information (Al-salami,1988). Unfortunately, students are unable to make full use of the vast amount of information provided in dictionaries. The reason behind that is the inadequate training of learners in the use of dictionaries (Berwick and Horsfal ,(1996); Wright, (1998); Nesi , (2000). If we want our students to be efficient users of dictionaries we have to know how they use these sources of information. Very little is known about the behaviour and preferences of dictionary users and the complex operation involved in a dictionary consultation(Hartmann and James, (1998).
This paper discusses the results of a questionnaire distributed to a random sample of students of University of Kufa regarding the types of dictionaries used, the frequency of use, the main reason for consultation……etc.
The final conclusion reached is that our students do not make full use of the riches found in the dictionaries and they are not trained on how to make full use of the dictionary.
We suggest that the reference skill of our students should be developed through the teaching of lexicography at all stages and the training on dictionary use.

The Idea of Death in William Carlos Williams: A Study in Selected Short Poems

Shubbar Abdul Adil Mousa

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages 72-87

William Carlos Williams (1883-1963) is a modern American poet, novelist, critic, painter and pediatrician, who established his literary carrier with the advent of the twentieth century surveying various fields of life with a doctor's eye. He provides the English literature with prolific contributions that bear witness of his impressive ability and comprehensive realization of life as an artist.
Williams reflects numerous salient traits in his works especially in poetry, but his primary concern is the application of naïve good sense and native intelligence to devise the poetic structure that would formalize experiences without deforming them. He says: "let the beat of speech determine the measure; to rinse the language of ornament and encrustation to scrupulously selective but to allow for accident and impingement." 1
Williams, who had been a derivative poet up to at least the age of thirty, became within few years a "remarkably original one. The reason for his striking transformation has never been adequately discussed. It is generally assumed that the change was due to the progressive maturation of Williams' poetic skills."2
Williams affirms the function of art, and of poetry in particular, a new kind of precision, equivalent to scientific method but directed towards obejectivising experience. To do this the" writer according to Mike Weaver, had to become his own reader, a functioning perceiver observing himself in action."3 Williams stated in his letter to John C. Thirwall the new tradition that he had devised to write his poems and how he had become aware of a basic change that affects the way of writing them.
It is part of our present situation in the world that when we perceive an alternative to our action which enlarges the fields which they occupy, we feel inevitably impelled to give them the head to go where they are called… There are leads which points the way to the approaching changes, undoubtly unwelcome that have been latent for centuries. The tendency of the race is to resist change violently.4

Williams' poems 'the Dead Baby' , 'Death', 'the Shadow', 'Winter Trees', 'To Waken An Old Lady' and 'the Barber of Death' reveal an outstanding orientation directed by the poet to the concept of death and all its incurring aspects as it is examined by an experienced American doctor who surveyed man from birth to death. The research aims at proving this orientation and displaying the poet's points of view whether it is positive or negative and his concept of regeneration and renewal.

Lexical Relations and the Use of Communication Strategies:

Ghusoon Mehdi Mehlool

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages 88-123

In order to be active and independent, language learners, specially those who are not described as good language learners, need training in using the different types of language learning strategies. Among them communication strategies which are used in most cases to deal with lexical gaps , that is the lack of a lexical item .
The study farwards the analysis and the study of the individual aspects of communicative competence separately instead of studying communicative competence as one whole unit. Being very important for both processes communication and language learner , the study focuses on one of the linguistic aspects of communicative competence , lexical competence . It refers to learner's knowledge of lexical items and the lexical relations that exist between them. The study investigates its nature , its analysis , and its development . A test is constructed to diagnose areas of strength and weakness in learner's lexical competence and it concludes that developing learners lexical competence involves providing learner's with knowledge of lexical relations in a way that helps them to overcome their weaknesses as well as providing them with instructions on how to select and use the approperiat vocabulary learning strategies.