Human Settlements in Liwa Ajlun and the Southern Part of Hurran District in the End of 16th Century (1596 A.D)

Khaleef Mustafa Gharayba

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 4, Pages 13-35

In 1596, Syria was ruled over by the Ottoman Empire, and it was subdivided into six administrative districts: Quds As-sharif, Nablus, Gazza, Lajjun, Ajlun and Sam As-sharif.
This study is conducted to know both the nature of the administrative divisions in Syria, in general, and the region of the study in particular, and to determine the amount of taxes paid, the number and names of the human settlements in Liwa Ajlun and the Southern Part of Hurran district, the number of which was 335 settlements inhabited by 10183 families.
The significance of this study is endorsed by the fact that this region with its settlements in question not only enhanced the Empire income with taxes paid then, but it also formed the Jordanian political identity in 1921, known as The Emirate of Trans-Jordan, and later, in 1946 as The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.
The researcher adopted the descriptive analytical approach to analyze the information, data, and statistics about the region sorted out in tables and maps that summarize the objectives clearly.
The study came up with findings and recommendations that may contribute, even partly, to the progress of academic research in the cultural aspect of Historical Geography.

Drought Theory in the East Area of the Mediterranean

Kareem Dragh Mohammad

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 4, Pages 36-48

This research is to expound a theory in (Survey Climatology) as an explanation for the phenomenon of drought affects the eastern region of the Mediterranean Sea in the last year. The text is based on (the recurrence of the tropical hurricanes beat the Caribbean Sea , the Gulf of Mexico and the south of North America during the period extends from June to October every year and result in the drought of the eastern region of the Mediterranean Sea through the rainy year and some years later).
The research depends upon three axes: the physical qualities of the atmosphere, the solid and the liquid cover of the earth . It is also based on three givings: the tropical hurricanes beat the Gulf of Mexico ,the Caribbean Sea and the south of northern America/ the birth of the depressions at Iceland in the Atlantic Ocean at latitude 570 to the north /and what happens to the depressions as the depressions as they pass the Mediterranean Sea.

Future Prospects of the Rural Settlement in Al-Hilla District

Wahab Fahad Al-Yasiry

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 4, Pages 49-86


Rural areas' studying is a function that the geographers adopt apart of it, whether they where with the geographers researchers team or with the horizons of the rural stability in any phenomena and studying the economical, social and educational levels of the residents in any residential place. The object of our research is to study the rural area in Hilla which is located in Baghdad. The studied area includes:
1- Hilla district center.
2- Abu Garaqh country.
3- Al-Kefel country.
The distance of these three divisions is (878 km2, its population 288133 according to the population estimation 2007.
The aim of studying the future horizons of the rural stability in Hilla is to know the state of affairs and define the suggested residential areas to develop these residential areas. The researcher considered the types of the rural residential areas in order to form a special place for each type according to the economical and social level to fulfill the region's needs.
Throughout the research, the following conclusions are reached:
1- A group of the rural residential places have distributed on the administrative units of the studied region, that varied in its number and size to reach (154) units subjects to developing.
2- Modern designs are made to develop the state of the studied place affairs and invest the available resources to achieve the economic, social and educational welfare for the citizens.

Theoretical-Analytical Contribution in the explication of the Mechanisms of Economic Spatial Relations

Ali Kareem Al-Ammar

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 4, Pages 141-169


Theories of regional, like other theories include a set of philosophical concepts derived from a personal place, and to finalize had come across a series of measures and corrections focused on the scientific field location, as the focal interest of the regional flag, a flag that explains the factors that dominate the economic and social actors The architectural and functional relationships with each other in space, those events, which starts through and through interactive relationships that make it the place is dynamic, which can not imagine they occur randomly, but according to the mechanisms of mutual occur continuously and repeatedly so that this interaction has become a feature of legal somewhere Adapting is the emergence of the phenomenon and then the relationship between its parts.
For these reasons, the most important characteristic of acclimatization from the rest of spatial knowledge of other fields, lies in a functional interdependence of the components group consisting of the place, whether based on no single group or dynamic qualities are collectively used as justification for the phenomenon later became a stand-alone note explains that the functional relationships and mechanisms occur.

In this research will try to address the most prominent mechanisms of interaction and spatial relationships, which include:
-Analysis of the mechanisms of spatial relationship in the context of economic analysis implicit within the region.
-Analysis of the mechanisms and the development of economic relations within the framework of the interpretation of spatial variation levels
- Analysis of the evolution of the economic impact mechanisms in space.

Assessment in the Sixth Chapter of Tuhfatul-Ghareeb FI AL-Kalam ala MuGhni Al – Labee for Bader al- Deen Al Damamini( D .827A.H. )

Haider Kareem Kadhim

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 4, Pages 170-210

This is the seventh chapter of Tohfet Alghareab, it is entitled a warning of things that are known among the grammarians as true while they are wrong.
This part is considered as a continous of what had been studied previously in the Ph.D thesis in the assessment of Tohfet Alghareab. The researcher followed the same previous method.

Assessment of Noisily Pollution on The Iraqi Environmen –A Case Study In Najaf City

Hussein Mosa Al-Shimari; Muna Jabir Mohammad

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 4, Pages 211-228

Urbanization, growth of urban population, has awful1y accelerated during this century and has been faster in developing countries than in the advanced ones. The problems associated with the rapid change in human environment have intensified in the cities. It is here that physical environment is becoming increasingly polluted, the manmade environment of slums, restricted living space and noise are at their worst and the changes in the social environments have aggravated any problems Not very for back, in the past, this very environment was pure, virgin and uncontaminated, and basically quite hospitable for mankind. It is all due to thoughtless over-exploitation of our various natural resources, by our own activities, perhaps due to our unending greed, in the garb of ‘development’, and the egoistic attitude towards "Nature".
This paper deals with sequence of various acoustical disturbances caused in the wake of noise pollution in the segments of industrial, commercial and traffic activities; how it would be harmful to the Iraqi environmental at large explaining its insidious effects and the measures to be adopted to contain its adverse and ill-effects against deterioration of environment.
The Iraq physical environment is becoming increasingly polluted because of the traffic activities, the new information technology, rebuilding ,...etc

Evaluating the Evaluation and Measurement Curriculum for Teacher Training Institutes from the Viewpoint of the Students of Arabic, History and Geography Departments

Salam Naji Baqir Al-Ghadhban; Alla Ali Hussein

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 4, Pages 229-269


This research aims at evaluating the evaluation and measurement curriculum for the fourth stage in teacher training institutes (for males and females) in Misan governorate from Arabic and history and geography Departments and showing how it’s related with this material and teaching it according to the scientific specialized of the students.
This research deals with the six main elements of curriculum as a scientific field of study for this research which are (aims, content, teaching methods, educational technology, extra activities, and evaluation).
This research limits to:
Teacher training institute in Misan (one for male and one for females).
Fifth stage students in Arabic and history and geography Departments (morning studies) -The academic year (2007-2008)
To reach the aims of this study the researchers adopted a questioner which they made as a tool for this study. Also, they depends in preparing this tool on many of previous studies, references, and gathering the students point of view through open questioner give to them.
The researchers ensure from the validity of the questioner by give it to the experts and jury in the psychology and education field of study. They find its reliability by presenting it to pilot study. And also many items deleted, added and improved according to the experts and jury notes. The final number of the questioner items were (97) distributed on the above six fields.
The population of the study was (76) students, and the sample of the study was (48) students (after excluded some students for different reasons).
The researchers used the likely mean, the weighted percentage, and Person coefficient correlation as static tool for this study.
The researchers reach these results:
• Four fields had been achieved which are (aims, content, teaching methods, and evaluation). And two fields failed to achieve which are (educational technology and extra activities).
• 70 items had been achieved distributed on the six field mentioned above and 27 items not achieved according to the given table.
The researchers reach some recommendations:
• Emphasis on identify the behavior aims through aims field.
• Enlarge the study of the different evaluation field according to the content and not reducing it to the achievement side.
• Emphasis on the practical side in teaching this material because it is apply material and connect it with the scientific specialized of the study with using the different reinforcement styles.
• Enlarge the educational technology especially computers.
• Enlarge the extra activities.
• The examinations questions should contain on practical applications. And rewarding the students on their daily activities.
The researchers suggested writing similar studies to evaluate the evaluation and measurement from the students’ point of view in other departments like: mathematic, science and English.

Geographical Analysis of Drainage in Al-Najaf Governorate and Means of Development

a Hussein Salman; Alya

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 4, Pages 270-326

Al-Najaf governorate has been considered as one of the most important of the agricultural areas. For its various agricultural crops. Particularly in the plane area that is characterized by the flat surface and the readily of making different agricultural processes .this area depends on the flow irrigation. Moreover using of other techniques for irrigation which characterized by the random structure.
These random techniques leads to deteriorate the soil and its quality. The flat surface considered as a significant pointer to reflect the bad picture for the drainage and how it gathers near the ground causing of salt rising existing. Salt gathering is considered as one of the most important problems that are faced the agricultural crops in the given area .
So we suggest to search with the most important tap in Al-Najaf governorate to find out the problems that in faces. These problems appear as the specialized persons with this domain neglect it. Besides the natural features for this area. This subject ordered us to search and study with the necessary techniques to get ride these obstacles in the agricultural processes firstly .and secondly for deter mining the enough water for each donam in the agricultural areas in the plane area.
We can do this by treat these problems that are reduced the quality of water to determine the crops need for irrigation especially the problem of clay precipitation and aquatic plants.
The studies also reached to interpret and analysis the data which were related with the necessity of putting the suitable treatments to maintain the drainage network to the giver area. Additionally the treatment of the dirty water that are coming from the agricultural soils and wake it as other source for agriculture after faltering it from the salt as the water shares for the agriculture areas could be not enough for it need during the tow seasons in the year.

Political Aspect of the Environmental Deterioration in the Developing Countries under the Economic Globalization

Hussein Ali Abdul-Hussein

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 4, Pages 327-393

Many factors worked together to create the appropriate conditions for the development of the global economy one of these factors is the international customhouse union and the growth of capitals whish made the capitalist countries to move their industrial investments to any developmental countries where the factors of industrial in vestment are available. In addition, environmental rules have not been applied in developmental countries which encourage the capitalist countries to adopt the global economy strategy and encourage it in order to move their pollution industrial away from their countries.
The widespread of economic globalization in the international economy caused big changes in the economic structure of the developmental countries represented by the decrease of local production because of the rescuing of most of their industrial sectors depending of the raw material imported from developmental countries with comparatively low prices.
In addition to , the multi-nationalities companies worked on increasing the debts of developmental countries by smuggle ring capitals out of developmental countries to obligate them to give tax relinquishments which reached Millars of dolor's and obligate their governments to give these companies the priority to construct different projects in these countries that coasted very large amount of money . At the same time these companies worked on the continuous decrease of the wages of their workers , the workers who pay taxes to the government which caused the decrease of the national input at the global level , at the same time the problem of unemployment has increased hand in hand with the deficits of the government balances . This has increased the debts of developmental countries , and led them to put economic reformation strategies in order to keep the hard currency inside their capacity in achieving food independence , thus a new strategy was introduced which the strategy of "agricultural intensiveness".
The application of "agricultural intensiveness" strategy caused a clear "Environmental degeneration" , including the damage of soil and water sources , both surface and under ground sources because of the intensive use of insecticide and agricultural fertilizers , In addition to , the horizontal expansion of agricultural investment caused the damage of many frosts which resulted in the decrease of organisms variation and the emergence of the problem of dissertations and the consequent appearance oscillation of rainfall in many countries that accrue with the region of humid climate , thus about (1.4)k2 of the area of forest is damaged per-minute which causes the death of about (50-150) organism each day in tropical forests where (80%) percent of Biodiversity is placed since these forces represent life sources of genetic various of organisms.
Another problem has emerged as a result of using "agricultural intensiveness" , the problem of "Eutrophication" , This problem is caused mainly by using too much in secticides and fertilizers , and the concentration of chemical compounds in the water of agricultural drain and in the rivers in which this water falls consequently the density of Algal has increased and this works on the decrease of the "Do" in the water of these rivers which makes these rivers unapproiate for the life of may organisms.
The study resulted in two main points ; First , that one of the most important results of "Environmental degeneration" of the political dimension which influenced and will influence the shape of political relations that caused international conflicts is the conflict on water sources . The second point is that the decrease of " Biodiversity" has on important role in bad conditions of international economic security . Since the genetic material of different types of natural organisms participates in Millions of dollars of the international economy each year taking the form of different types of proved corps.
The study ends with certain results and recommendations about the role of economic globalization in environmental degeneration , the economy of developmental countries and the political effects of this environmental degeneration in the present and feature states of international relations .

Effective Classroom Management Standards from the Viewpoint of Educational Colleges Teachers

Ahmad Abdul Muhsin Kadhim; Ali Majid Adhari

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 4, Pages 394-446


A goal of this research is to build standards for the management class effective from the viewpoint of teachers of education colleges and then show whether there are statistically significant differences on the importance of the standards among education colleges teachers according to a changing work site.

For the purpose of achieving the goals of the search tool designed built standards adoption method combination of literature in the area of research and between the sample responses within a reconnaissance study.
The sample of research included on (140) teaching them (60) teachers at the Education college in Maysan University, and (55) teachers in the basic education college at the University Maysan, and (25) teachers in the college of Physical Education at the University of Maysan, the search tool was questionnaire has offered to the scientific procedures known to find validity to the test, and for the purpose of the reliability of the stability of the instrument adopted researcher way analysis of variance using the equation of kuder Richardson hitting consistency coefficient (0.86), having been dealt a statistical and data analysis results has been built (40) a standard of management Effective classroom, with an emphasis on the importance of standards by the study sample and, the search was left a set of recommendations, foremost of which emphasize the theme of the management of the classroom management of class with some suggestions that integrate with the question of which was the need for a joint study between the colleges of education in Iraqi universities for the purpose of building standards effective

Tripartite Verb in Tarfa Bin-Ala'bd's Anthology: A Systematic Study in Arabic Vocabulary

Hassan Hameed Mohsen

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 4, Pages 447-498


The present study purports to investigate the interrelationship between the phonological and morphological levels. Moreover, it tackles the functional impact of the tripartite morphological structure on forming the literary structure since language is a social activity, the activity that produces the communal verbal performance.
Based on that concept, the study starts to show that the tripartite origin is the genuine verbal root by which all Arabic vocabulary are founded. The study proceeds to manifest the conformity of the morphological structures with the sounds of words, more specifically with the short vowels, as in the inconformity of the unstressed articulation of sound in the mid of the form (عين) in nouns, since the sound characteristics are not identical between the emphatic pronunciation and the sound gliding in case there is no interval between them, even one sound.
The study also investigate the replacement of the diacritical mark of (عين) for the sake of euphony. And this what the language intends to the vocabulary. Moreover, it deals with the replacement of the mark of the past tense by a juxtaposition mark of the present and the variation of the marks that Arabic intends to so as to create a kind of incompatibility and harmony. This phenomenon can be realized as much in Arabic morphology.