Ageogr-Phic Analysis for the climate characteristics and their relation with wheat and bariey cultivation in Babylon

Abdul Hasan Madfon Abu Rehail; Fadhil Abdul Abbas

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 12, Pages 11-39

This study entitled aims at revealing the effect of the Climatic characteristics on the Agricultural production in Babil City through defining the relationships between the Climatic requirements necessary for the studied crops and the available capabilities in the studied area.
The study revealed the climatic requirements of every agricultural crops studied in the area of study as temperature ,light, humidity ,rain ,and wind .In addition, the climatic characteristics were analysed as solar radiation, temperature ,winds, , humidity and rains . This was revealed through pearson analysis which showed the suitability of the elements such as temperature, solar radiation , humidity and wind The analysis showed the suitability of the area for growth concerning the requirements of crops and the capabilities available in the area of study

Climate and its Relation with the Rise and Spread of Sunah Insect that affected the Wheat Corp

Mahmood Bader Ali Al- Same; Ali Mardan Taiyh

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 12, Pages 41-82

This research aims at throw lights on the relation between climate and the rise and spread of Sunah that affecting wheat production in AL- Najaf AL- Ashraf Government because of the nutritional and economic importance of wheat as the main food of population, the increase need for it due to the grading population which involve more efforts to improve production and quality . The rise and the spread of Sunah during the latest years in the study area affected negatively the crop`s quantity and quality in spite of the suitable natural circumstances and the potentialities of improving .
This research presents , in its introduction , a definition of wheat , its strategic importance as an effecting factor in the international policies and its lack may affect seriously the nutritional security of any country ,its original land , the geographic distribution of production according to the agricultural units during the agricultural season ( 2009 / 2010 )and studying the relation between the study area characteristics and the sunah insect spreading . The insect life cycle have been studied as well as the type of the relation between climate and rise by using the multi correlation coefficient and the scientific analysis of its rise .Finally , the research studies the economic effects resulted from the insect spreading .
The research concluding a set of conclusions such as
1-The low contribute of Najf in producing wheat in Iraq as well as the low land productivity due to the affect by Sunah .
2-The climatic circumstances in the study area are suitable for the rise and spread of Sunah .
3- The human factor has an effect on increase the negative effects of sunah due to the ignorance of its dangers and the unserious efforts in compacting it .
All that is followed by the resources .

Abbad bin AL- Hassain AL- Hibty – Analytic study

Sameer saleh hasan Al- omer

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 12, Pages 83-97

Abbad ben Al Hussain (historical study) :
He was knight of Tameem squadron in Islam , a fighter in Islamic occupations in the east , and he participated in the wars against the Khewarij. Then he joined to revolution of Ibn Al Zobair against the state of beni Omeyya , and became the leader of Basrah police , he combated with Ibn Al Zobair against Al Mokhtar Al Thaqaphy . Also he supported the rebel Abd Al Rahman ben Al Ashaath.
The historian Al Medaaeny wrote historical book about Abbad and his grandchild Al Mosawoar ben Omar ben Abbad , in spite of that ,the historians did not take care of his news so much.

Al- Tabrizy efforts in the Quranic Recitations.

Mohammed Abdul Zahra Ghafil; kadhim Ouda AL-Bdayry

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 12, Pages 99-136

Besides his tourney, his education was supported by agroup of the master Scholars, and his reading for many books of Linguistics, grammar and literature.AL-Maery getting old in age, and can give nomore,hance AL-Tabreezy left AL-Ma,era to Baghdad, met Ibn AL-Dahan (447.A.H).In AL-Basrah he studied for sheikh Abi AL-Qhasim AL-Qhasabany(454.A.H).Then he moved to Damascus, Sur and Eggpt, and met some of the most important Scholars Such as Ibn Babshodh AL-Nahawy (469.A.H).

Al- Madinah Document –Astudy of the early Islamic Resouece and the orient alists opinions . reading the Text and Analysis of the articles

Moshtaq Basheer AL-Ghazaly; Mohammd Jawad Fakhrel Dean

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 12, Pages 137-171

لقد مثلت هجرة المصطفى محمد بن عبد الله (صلى الله عليه وعلى اله) الى مدينة يثرب متغيراً هاماً على صعيد نشر الدعوة الاسلامية بعد ان كانت محصورة في مجالات ضيقة ضمن حدود مكة . وقد اعطى هذا المتغير فرصة كبيرة للنبي (ص) للحركة بحرية اكبر، وتنفيذ مشروعه بتأسيس مجتمع ودولة اسلامية . لذلك كانت وثيقة المدينة حاضره لتوضيح طبيعة العلاقة بين الاطراف المتعددة ، التي ساهمت واثرت في طبيعة الحياة في المدينة ، والتطورات اللاحقة التي شهدتها .
ونظراً لاهمية هذه الوثيقة ، فقد تناولها المستشرقون في دراسات عديدة مركزين على تاريخ كتابتها، والبنود الخاصة بيهود المدينة .
ان رؤى المستشرقين واطروحاتهم دفعتنا للانطلاق بتحليل الوثيقة ودراسة بنودها دراسة تاريخية املاً في معالجة بعض الاشكاليات المرتبطة بها ، او الوصول الى اجابات منطقية ومقنعه للعديد من التساؤلات الغامضه حولها .
وقبل ان نقوم نتحليل بنود الوثيقة ، عملنا على تحقيق نصها ، لبيان وتوضيح مضمونها ، اذ ان العديد من مفرداتها بحاجة الى توضيح ، فضلاً عن ذلك فقد تتبعنا ذكرها في المصادر الاسلامية المبكرة، وقد لاحظنا انها ذكرت في مصادر متنوعة فصلنا ذلك في متن البحث .
وقد انصب جهدنا لمعالجة تساؤلات هامه تتعلق بزمن كتابة الوثيقة من جهة ، وبعلاقة الوثيقة بيهود المدينة ، مستعرضين في ذلك آراء ابرز المستشرقين ، وقد نتج عن البحث الرؤية الاتية :
بعد دراسة بنود الوثيقة دراسة تحليلية ، نستطيع القول ان اليهود ذكروا في الوثيقة على صيغتين : صيغة عامة ، واخرى خاصة ، ويمكن تحديد زمن كتابة هذه البنود المتعلقة باليهود ، بعد هجرة النبي (ص) الى المدينة وقبل معركة بدر ، لان مضمونها يشير الى حالة تنظيم العلاقة مابين المسلمين واليهود ، كما انها عبرت عن احترام النبي (ص) لليهود وديانتهم (لليهود دينهم) ، ولكن اشترطت عليهم عدم ممارسة الغدر والخيانة والتأمر ونصرة اعداء المسلمين ، لان ذلك سيعرضهم للهلاك ، بل ان بعض البنود ارتقت باليهود واعطتهم امتيازات هامه كما في البنود (16 ، 24 ) .
اما مايتعلق بزمن كتابتها ، وهل كانت على دفعات ام انها كتبت دفعة واحدة ، نقول لاشك انها لم تكتب دفعةً واحدة ، وذلك استناداً لجملة من الاسباب التي اوردناها خلال البحث ، كمعالجة الوثيقة للعلاقة بين اطراف عدة ، او عدم وحدة الاسلوب في كتابة الوثيقة ، والخلل الواضح في صياغة بعض بنودها على خلاف بنود اخرى ، فضلاً عن اسباب اخرى بيناها بالتفصيل . وهنا يمكن القول ان مضامين البنود وطبيعة احداث السيرة تجعلنا نعتقد ان الوثيقة كتبت واكتملت قبل معركة بدر ، ولكن كانت كتابتها على شكل دفعات متلاحقة تمت بجميع بنودها قبل معركة بدر ، فاصبحت على هذا الشكل المتكون من (47) بنداً ، وسميت بوثيقة المدينة .

The State Origin for the Authors of the Social Contract Theory " Hoppes, Luke and Rousseau" and its Effect on the Contemporary Thought

Sami shaheed Mashkoor

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 12, Pages 173-200

This subject is considered as a part of the philosophy of ethics, so the researcher wished to write in it, as the state has a connection with the individuals and people`s future, and to show the way by which Man had moved from the primitive life, before the rise of the state, to the life of the organized group under an authority and governed by a law via a contract. This study shows also the difference conception of the writers and philosophers for this contract on the level of describing the conditions of Man primitive life before the contract, defining the contract parties and defining the contract contain, results and the motives that forced Man to accept this contract.
The researcher found that there is an effect for this theory on the contemporary thought, where the theory of Justice for "John Roles "is ascribed for the traditional theory of the social contract which had been put by Hoppes, Luke and Rousseau, where he believed that justice is a social contract or a common agreement based on a political understanding of justice.

Archaeologies inModernism and Postmodernism

Ali Abbood al-Mohammadaoi

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 12, Pages 201-222

Archeology is an attempt to cleanse something and the archaeological approach is one of the most followed approaches in studying conceptions and phenomena although some try to undermine it as an academic approach. However, it is an approach that works on reproducing an understanding of a subject that has been misunderstood because of various readings and the intervention of epistemological and political powers.
Archaeological studies are so important to the researcher who has to adopt them to trace the nature of conceptions and subjects. They also help in giving a better understanding of the various developments in the understanding of each concept and how and where these varieties took place. When discussing conceptually controversial issues such as modernism and postmodernism, there is always a problem about how to define each of them; a problem that has led to a great deal of confusion that makes the accurate meaning sometimes unavailable. Hence, the research adopts a particular approach to partially trace conceptions of terms somehow agreed upon in the lexicons and institutional studies. Contemporary thought makes it necessary to focus on the conception of postmodernism as it belongs more to the time we live in.

The ‘post…isms’, including postmodernism, to be fully understood, require understanding what that ‘post…ism’ rejects or wants to leave behind. This makes it necessary to first understand the conception of modernism or modernity to understand what is supposed to be its opposite.
Postmodernism appears to be a critical strategy to face modernist terms such as enlightenment, progress, rationalism, secularism, democracy and liberalism. Today, we are exploring a new area in which criticism is based on how to use or deal with propositions and conceptions rather than on what the propositions and conceptions themselves are only.
This way of addressing these conceptions enables us to have a new understanding of rationalism and all the modernist propositions in the light of alternatives to discourse and perception of the postmodern propositions and terms such as fragmentation, plurality of meaning and the margin.

The Historical Methad ,its princphes and how did it move to literature .Taha Hussain As a Model.

Abdul Kareem Jedea Al- Nafakh

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 12, Pages 251-278

The ancient civilizations have known the historical method, through the codification and facts, and teams philosophers between epic and history and the separation between the truth of literary and thought, as it is the critics Arab veterans had known the historical method, but it approach based on the perception of partial and moves away from the provisions General . As seen through modern criticism the historical method to the creator felt he did not stipulate an inspiration, and here, the first features of the historical method when Taha Hussein is the adoption of doubt which he submitted on Evidence, mixing criticism of scientific approach historical fiction art , As well as that employed Narrative construction Stay away Detail about the incidents and dates and numbers, so Distinction Listed free of fillers staff dialogue in the narrative, he reveals the people and move the text forward.

Grave's the Martyr Mohammed Baqir al-Sadr and the Attempts of Revealing and Effacing (1980-2003)

Mohammed Jawad Jassim Mohammed Al-Jazaeri

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 12, Pages 279-325

The name of the martyr Mohammed Baqir al-Sadr is closely related with the history of the Islamic Work in Iraq during the second Half of the twentieth century. Hence, he is regarded as an outstanding extraordinary character and a striving thinker who was able to break the intellectual boundaries imposed on Iraq for a long time. Therefore, he had a significant position in the heart of the nation to the extent that he became an icon for the political Islamic work in Iraq.
The Islamic revolution in Iraq was related to the thought of al-Sadr. He was the effective element in the events of that period. This caused a quality change in the Iraqi society reality as a pioneer and a thinker. He was also a teacher, a creator of awareness and a source for science. His life was ended by martyrdom and his corpse was buried in al-Najaf al-Ashraf in the ninth of April 1980. His grave was hidden so no one of his enemies can reach his body and temper his grave.
The research tackled the biography of al-Sadr, his knowledge and how he reached the degree of "Ejtihad" revealing his main works that represented a wide horizon through which he got along with the changes and developments in life. The researcher also discussed the burrier of al-Sadr in 1980 and mentioned how his body was moved for the first time in 1994 when Mr. Kamel al-Ameedy and his team dig his body out and moved it to its new grave behind al-Nassir quarter. The researcher also discussed the matter of the second time his body was moved in 1997 by the same person in secret so the news would not reach the police forces which can cause them to be arrested and endanger their lives. After 2003, the position of grave was announced and was built properly to be a source light for the forthcoming generations

The Political Role of al – Imam al – Hasan (peace be upon him )

Fatima A .Said Alsarr

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 12, Pages 328-358

Al – Hasan bin Ali bin Abi Talib ( A.s ) , the Quraishi , the Hashimi , was the fifith Rashidi caliphs . He was born in the third year after Hijra .
His nickname was Abu Muhammad . He brought up in the midst of the prophet ( peace be upon him and his family ) , for his characteristics were from the prophet and from his parents . He was pious , generous , patient , eloquent , truthful and he was a scetic in the life .
The prophet gave al – Hasan and al- Husein a special passion and care in his life , and this case had apolitical effect , they were his successors .
The role of al – Imam al – Hasan was clear in the protecting and defending the Islamic mission , and keeping the unity of Islamic nation after the prophet . He stood up for the third caliphs , Othman bin Afan , and he injured for that , and in the time of his father ,s caliphate ,
al – Imam al – Hasan was responsible for calling up the army from Kufa for the batlle of al – Jamal , and so that the was in the battle of safyeen .
All these things , and others , made al – Imam al – Hasan the authorizer of the caliphate , if we a void his being the second amany the twelve Imams , for he faced a wide and strong opposition for umayads , whom representative in that time , by Muawia bin Abi sufyan who used many ways to gain the caliphate and to obliged al – Imam al- Hasan to accept the peacemaking .
Many elements obliged , as we said , al – Imam al – Hasan to accept peacemaking , the bad hearsay , the bribe , the Romans threat ......etc ., all these elements stood behined the acceping peacemaking by Imam al – Hasan in order to keep the Islamic Nation from destruction , Al – Imam accepted according to conditions , but Muawia didn , t took care to it , for the battle of Al – Taf which led by al – Imam al – Husein ( A . s ) was a result of breaking the conditions by Muawia .

Conversational Analysis in Beckett's "Endgame"

Majid Mohammed Saadoon; Ali Kareem Falah

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 12, Pages 11-62

Conversation is a way of speaking of two or more people by means of two turns, the first turn and the second turn. The basis of a conversation is normally interactional, although sometimes it has got a transactional element. Turn –taking is the process of alternating between speakers or participants in a conversation. Turn –taking occurs either through nomination or by self –selection by the new speaker. Adjacency pairs are considered as functional units in conversational organization .Such pairs are most frequent in plays which are the means of interaction between characters.
The problem of the research is related to how can a complete turn identified. To identify a turn you need to examine the points of possible completion of a turn at transition relevant places. It is difficult to identify a turn without it sings of possible completion.
This study aims at analyzing conversation as a means of interaction between people (social side). Also this study aims at supporting some critical points of view concerning the Absurd playwrights' way of writing (their techniques). In addition to that identifying the reasons behind the occurrence of silences and the role and boundaries of a turn in a conversation (the beginning and end of a turn).
It is hypothesized that silences occur as a result of rather absence of possible completion of a turn and topic –change devices ( possible pre_ closing and pre –closing ) . Also, it is the use of turn-by-turn allocation system waiting to speak.

A Socio-pragmatic Study of Apology in Iraqi Non-standard Arabic

Hussein Dhahi Muzhir; Musaab AbdulZahraRahee

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 12, Pages 63-86

Apology has been the focus of many studies in west and east. Some of these studies have focused on Arabic, but none of which have dealt with the use of apology in Iraqi non-standard Arabic. Besides, none has concentrated on the social value or gender differences in the use of such a speech act in Arabic. This study is an attempt to outline the most commonly existent differences between Iraqi males and females in the use of apology strategies. The corpus consists of responses to Discourse Completion Test, which includes three different situations. The informants have been 30 subjects: 15 males and 15 females. The sample is randomly selected from different places in Najaf to be more representative. The survey is written in Arabic to elicit responses that approximate verbal apologies for each different situation.