Of Teaching element for Al- Jahidh

NaJah hadi Kubah; Hasen Ali Farhan Al- Azawy

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 14, Pages 11-45

The current research aim to clarify the co-factors regarding teaching according to aljahidh ways ,, regarding the research borders the researcher credited aljahidh's books (alborsan , alomian , and alholan ) as a sample from his all books for the research ,,, there's no doubt that there's a lot of factors contributing in the success of the teaching process like ; knowing the educational , feeling , hereditary , environmental , and psychological level of the student….. etc. and in the first place knowing of the goals .
After identification the research problem , aims and operational definitions the researchers done the analysis and interpretations according to the discreptional method according to aljahidh's point of view regarding the research subject
The researchers had some conclusions like : the ability of aljahidh to diagnose the co-factors in teachings and treasuring the Arabic as well as the Islamic legacy with these co-factors and these factors play an essential role by aiding the teacher to deliver his subject to his students , while regarding the research results both researchers recommended to took advantage from aljahidh's educational and psychological opinions especially in the diagnosis of the co-factors that aids in teaching and learning and credit it in the published school books according to the educational level for example in the grammars and literature ….. etc

Assessment of land cover in Al- Najaf Governorate by using the Remote sensation Technics

Abd ul sahib Naji Al Baghdady; Hussain Mohi Ali Al- Mosawy; Sarraa Abd Taha Dhayf Al- Idhary

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 14, Pages 47-68

The geography is the science that study spatial phenomenona and it's changes, classes and the differences. Remot Sensing techniques make a general geographical picture for the earth that shows the differences for the spatial phenomenona through supervising, analyzing and classifying that geographer do by using modern techniques like Remot Sensing.
the uses of land and generally on the landscape of land surface .
In order to know the time classification of the land Cover for the present period, the researcher uses the analytical approach to analyze space images and display them through the visual interpretation and then the automatic analysis and exposition by way of remote sensing programs, especially ERDAS, which is complete program containing supervised and unsupervised classifications
image which consists of four Landsat 7 images well as field images to ensure that the information is precise and the training spots are limited.
The study area is classified according to Anderson Classification. With the assistance of this categorization and remote sensing techniques the researcher reaches at the conclusion that Najaf governorate comprises five land covers as follows:
• Urban Land or Buildings
• Agricultural Land
• Wetland
• Water
• Barren Land

Monatry moral to western modernity at Dr.Taha abd-alrahman's ideas

Sattar Jabur Hemood Al- Aarajy; Mohammed Hamzah Ibraheem

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 14, Pages 69-97

Dr.taha's moral thought made with the context of modernity attempts and its management .
The speech of modernity engaged –always- with the western's other side directly and indirectly so the western cultural had big audience in Muslims cultural without studying this effects and its shapes.
The research wrote to illustration effect of one of Islamic modern intellectual that is Dr.tahaabdalrahman in apprection to western modernity from ethical angle .
This research include three parts , the first one showed Dr.Taha's position from western modernity , divide this idea for tow parts : modernity siprit and modernity actuality . The difference of modernity actuality is the multiapplications of it , and the western application not be thing excluding one of it's. But modernity sipirt is one for all , thus any nation have its special modernity . inclusive Islamic nation , then its wrong that we are delayed from modernity train .The second research showed the compensations of basis that build on it the modernity system with morals as " separate the knowledge from moral " and " separate the brain from the supernatural " and branched from this tow basis the tow scientific rules : objectivity principle that separate human essence about research subject and indulgence principle that separate moral about logic mean that the logic reality done only with observe brains basis and there are no relation with work by this reality . All this lead to separate modernity from moral and then the scientific cause huge tragedy to humanity .The third research showed the moral treatment to this basis and then correction the path of western modernity . and he is suggest that the treatment coming from outer this modernity otherwise there no way to leave this crisis except religion gate .

The Iranian Kurdstan Democratic party 1963-1979A.D

Ali Adhum Mohammed Al- Kurdy; Ahmed shakir Abd Al- Allaqh

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 14, Pages 99-124

At the beginning of foreign invasion for Iran in 1941 A.C and riza Shah's overthrowing , new stage in the modern history of Iran started. This stage was based on multiplicity of parties and parliament elections. In this stage , the action of political conflict and political party began which was part of the conditions of violence , compulsion and power watching and according to this many parties and political organization were established and this establishing wasn’t restricted to one group.
Under these conditions , many political organizations were established in the area of Iran Kurdistan. These organizations took the nationalism as program and course and did their to achieve this aim in the independence and founding the state of self determination. The most important party was Iranian Kurdistan democratic party in 1945 A.C.
This party played an important role and achieved some of these aims which were adopted , so the party established Mahabad Republic in 1946 which didn’t continue long because the Soviet occupation forces introduced cooperation , after shared contract , with Qawam As'altana government in 1946.
At the beginning of white revolution project in 1963, this party decided to rebuild its structural , administrative , and political organizations in Iran Kurdistan area and abroad especially in Iraq Kurdistan area until 1968 , where an armed uprising headed by this party against central authorities , but , there was no equality in weapons and number which made the party failed to achieve self determination.
Since 1968, the party has depended on secret action and leaving armed action against central government of Tahran in order to build its political foundation and cooperate with other Iranian parties to overthrow Al-Shah's regime. This party began to hold seminars , meetings and public conferences which emphasized on , since 1971 until Islamic revolution broke out in 1979, making new programs based on the manner of its interior system in order to achieve its aim to get independence and self determination of Iranian Kurds.

The Descriptive Method in the Arabic Grammar between Dr.Mahdy Al-Makhzomy and Dr. Tammam Hassan A Contrastive Study

Haider Jabbar Edan; Dhergham Ali Mohsen

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 14, Pages 125-178

The importance of this thesis subject (Descriptive in the Arabic Grammar between Dr. Mahdy Al-Makhzomy and Dr. Tammam Hassan -A Contrastive Study -)resulted from the comparing the most important reformative lines in the method of studying linguistics, especially for two Arab linguists with two different affection , to be acquainted with the most important results which they had obtained and showing the difference reasons .
The descriptive method to which of Dr. Al-Makhzomy had called has some defects; it is a scientific method corporate with the Arabic language, rather it does not represent the Arabic language in all its dialects , it is restricted to the dialects of the six Arab tribes which the linguists studied. Dr. Tammam Hassan was far from applying the modern Wiser descriptive method to which he had called and disagreed with him in its important bases and principles, he did not define a certain Arab dialect in his study nor the time , place and the level of the dialect. So each researcher wishes to study the language of the Holy Qura`n , must study all its dialects showing the characteristics of each dialect because the Holy Qura`n had revealed un all these dialects.

Spatial variation for the cultivation of sunflower crop in Iraq (the study of geography in quantity)

Kazem Al-Abadi

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 14, Pages 179-226

The yield of sunflower crop oil industry, economically important to use the seeds in the production of oil, especially fat food, it constitutes 93% of the types of oils manufactured locally, so this is the crop of strategic crops achieve food security in the future, especially if the expansion of the vertical and grown in the horizontal
Research problem
Crop acreage under sunflower in Iraq fluctuate from year to year, which suggests the existence of relationships between different crop acreage on the one hand and the impact of different geographic factors on the other.
Aim of the research .
This research aims to reveal the reasons for the spatial variation of the area planted to sunflower crop, according to the spatial relations that are associated with and contribute significantly to explain this discrepancy.
Research hypothesis .
The research contained processing spatial relations that are related to cultivation of crop sunflower as independent variables with a direct impact and indirect crop sunflower, and follow the researcher use the statistical analysis (SPSS) to find this relationship away from subjective judgments and close to the substantive provisions because the statistical significance be more accurate and far from the accident, if they occur, so the researcher adopted a quantitative method and some of the statistical methods
As a key tool in the representation of spatial properties of geographic phenomena, in order to test the validity of assumptions used in the research, the researcher in his research on the steps (13) assume or attempt to statistically represented in the geographical maps of the geographical distribution of the sunflower crop.
Baptized, every one of them in the interpretation of spatial variation for the cultivation of sunflower crop in Iraq, which is linked to a number of variables by which we can access to the best explanation for the spatial variation of the sunflower crop .
The researcher in the analysis of statistical system (SPSS) to get the results recorded in the appendices are installed in the research has used statistical relationships such as the regression equation is simple linear and multiple, and the correlation coefficient and the selection in addition to the use of grading standard in the classification results, especially the results of regression coefficient resulting from the difference between values are seen and expected, and so-called residuum according to the statistical relationships and through the researcher was able to reach the following conclusions
1) the labor-prominent role in the reasons for the variance of crop sunflower where distributed (10) provinces within the category standard middle and especially in the last attempt, and by observing the map number (4), (15) that the labor of more independent variables influence the interpretation of reasons varied crop sunflower.
2) had a maize crop of the most agricultural crops impact on the causes of variation in crop sunflower since all the provinces within the category standard Central and is located within the category standard for an attempt last and this demonstrates the effect of maize crop to crop sunflower note that of crops and oil crops within many industries, especially the vegetable oil industry.
3) that the agricultural investment for the crop, sunflower is influenced by a range of variables and is not a variable one, it is shown by the attempts by the researcher and compared with the sun flower plantings could be found through the use of statistical standards with the exception of two variables are bound and yield of maize
4) There is a clear discrepancy between the governorates of Iraq regarding the role of the independent variables used in the study to analyze the spatial relationships for the cultivation of sunflower crop, and the provinces (Babylon, Diyala) of Iraq's provinces more affected by cultivation of this crop, it occurred within the middle class standard

The Iraqi Population Challenges for needs satisfaction A Socio-demographic Study

Firas Abbas Fadhil Al- Bayyaty

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 14, Pages 227-270

Since the first age of creating the mankind, man has been hardly trying to satisfy his needs. He has challenged all obstacles facing and hindering him in order not to get his needs - whether these challenges are natural, social, or economic …etc. Though human needs are similar, they vary from an individual to another, from a family to another, from a specific society to another, and also from a limited period of time to another, depending on the surrounding circumstances.
In the shadow of the current conditions from which the Iraqi society population is suffering in their daily life, the Iraqi individual faces a group of challenges representing mostly in satisfying his daily necessary needs in the welfare life (such as: food, drugs, residence, clothes, employment, safety, …., etc.).
This study aims at discovering the challenges facing the Iraqi population for needs satisfaction. The importance of this study is presented in shedding lights on the volume of the Iraqi population suffering in order to satisfy their needs. This study is based on the scientific curriculum to get the most precise results. The most important curriculums are: the historical, the socio survey and the analyzing ones.
In this paper, it has been concluded the following:
1. The Iraqi population faces a group of challenges (psychologically, socially, and economically) in order to get the needs satisfaction.
2. Most of the Iraqi population (the Mosullian family as a sample) suffers from the lack of needs satisfaction.
3. Most of the Iraqi population is under the poverty line, and that led to hinder its needs satisfaction.

Geographic distribution of people in Karbalaa province 1987-2007 (Geographic analysis

Sabriya Ali Hussein

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 14, Pages 271-304

Study of the geographic distribution is an important study to reved the methods by which the people allocate in aregion to analyze identhy the couses of this distribwtion find out if its perfet ornet . In order to disclose the picture of people distribution in karbalaa, this study came out to discover the variation of distribution from side to side in the provinee , find the factors attecting this population .
The study has an introduction , including search problem , theory syllabus , and first chmpter has dealt with numerical , proportional densitial his tribution from which a variation has excluded in people density from period (1987-2007) with gradual increase from (469282)citizen in 1987 to reach (887859)citizen in 2007 . karbalaa city record the highest increase to reach (73%, 71.8%, 71%) regarding to the province at all . Al Hindia city came in second orelev , Ain al –Tamr record the third order . The second choptev dealt with environmental distribution , measure the concentration of people . According to the focus formula , the concentrated populations were dominate which reveals the presence of wide inhabitated lands with irregular distribution in this province . Third chapter inspected the factors influencing people distribution , they include the natural , humanitarian factors from which the water sourses was the most important factor making people density in crease close to rivers lakes.

Family relationships through childrens Dramatic playing

Lubna Abdul Rasool Al- Saraf

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 14, Pages 305-335

There is no doubt that the child spends most of his waking hours in play, but sometimes you may prefer to sleep and eating it is more exercise activities and the movement of the child. Through it the child learns new skills and helped him to develop his skills the old, and that the workshop social reflects the roles of different social and controlling emotions and vent playing for many of the children's fears and concerns whether it is done playing alone or with peers, and if the child of that activity and the telecom practice reflected on the negative behavior, but that the absence of this activity with a child for an indication that this child is normal, a child who does not practice playing a sick child.
- Should know that play is defended real self is not derived by the child by developing others it is the spontaneous activity as no income to one of him in his education, it reflects the tendency inherent in the individual child discovers through himself and his abilities, and develop a Makka Nath mental, sensory, but can play the child to acquire the values, skills and attitudes necessary for the growth of social good, so Vallab biological activity practiced by all the children of the world and have been reluctant to play sayings many have been a period of time recommended by the children for parents and teachers of children and that play is a waste of time and investment bad time father says to his son, my son, do not waste your time in the play, my son, leave the game and turned to your lessons, do not benefit from playing is wasting time. Is this statement correct?. Can we play through to reveal what it takes for the child of a family through the various relationships around him?

Analysis placing to place of Government school in holy najaf by using geographic system information (GIS

Zena .A.Jaber; Ail.H. saad

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 14, Pages 337-378

The research submit a practical model to use GIS in accessing the current status to the sites of schools in the city of Najaf, in an attempt to use this technology in the education sector which is one of the most important service sectors, it's not a secret that the need of educational services to benefit from many capabilities that GIS offers to ensure a qualitative shift contribute in improvement of planning to educational and it's projects and take it to choose the optimum alternative, reaching to suitable sites for the primary, middle and secondary schools in the city of Najaf was not easy to find in the light of the traditional methods, which are usually painful and ended by accessing to sites might be lacking to some or all of the appropriate conditions

Language in Waiting for Godot

Ghanim Obeyed Oteiwy

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 14, Pages 9-28

Language is what determines the regulated world, the signification of which provides the foundation of our culture, our activities and our relations. It defines our identity as a form of reassurance. It deals not only with the impossibilities of knowing the motivation of human beings, but also presents the problem of communication between human beings. Speech is, undoubtedly, the proof of existence as well as a manner of contending silence, solitude and death, and it is man’s unique heritage.
Absurd dramatists’ use of language probes the limitations of language both as a means of communication and as an instrument of thought as there can be no definite meanings in a world deprived of values, principles and virtues. They have chosen to write in a language devoid of content to become the adequate representation of stagnant life; they present language as an inefficient tool to express one’s thought, to comprehend the world, or to define one’s self. So, Becket materialized the absurdity of modern life and human condition in his play.

A Pragma-stylistic Study of Using the Present Tense in Narratives

Hussein Dhahi Al-Hassnawi

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 14, Pages 29-44

It is normally known that '' literary language '' is different from '' ordinary language '' . That is , it is full of deviation , while, Prat,(1977:80) maintains that '' ordinary language '' is accompanied by ordinary rules , and outlines the work of Grice (1975 ) concerning the appropriate conditions that accepting a particular illocution-conditions which language users assume to be in effect.
In this study , the present tense is not referred to as an indication to the moment of speaking or action . Rather , in narratives , it signals that this genre is '' unmediated '' . As such , the present tense is heavily used by writers , regardless of the time being , to signify that a text can be read at any time. Moreover, it can be noted , that the shift from the past to the simple present tense offers readers an opportunity to think seriously of what is being said . It, thus,invites thought and suspense . As far as the writer is concerned , it seems that the writer resorts to the simple present tense just to comment , highlight and criticize some incidents or events within the story.

The Significance of Soliloquy as a Literary Technique in Hamlet

Khalid Jaber Al-Ogaili

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 14, Pages 45-60

In the tragedy of Hamlet by William Shakespeare , there are eleven soliloquies uttered by the protagonist of the play ''Hamlet'' , king Claudius and Ophelia . In this paper , the emphasis will be on the soliloquies uttered by the central character of the play ''Hamlet''
He said seven soliloquies , these soliloquies show the feelings , the tendencies and psychological aspects of Hamlet . The reader will be familiar with the reasons which prevent Hamlet to take revenge , although the play is about revenge . There are several opportunities to kill Claudius but Hamlet does not make use of them . He is hesitant to take revenge although he is sure that his uncle is the murderer of his father