Al- Saaleek cults in Arabia during the Pre- Islam Era- the strangers cult as an example

Hasan Essa Al-Hakeem; Salam Ganawi Abbas Al- Ibrahimy

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 15, Pages 11-44

The saaleek were not castes one but were from many geoup because man-y reasons as the Economical settings , Geographical and social environment , as well as political situation that making in growth and development this seelaak groups , where as various that castes
The strangers caste were one from among three castes that consist of the Sa- aleek in Arabic per- Islamic period the strangers caste were consist of sons bondmaid Happesh black whereof throw away fathers them whom not to follow them , and disso iutes caste ( abnomales) whom deposition tribes them for numerou serious crime , and castes were not from strangers or sons bondmaid but were from pores whom profession the Al- Seelaak professionalism
The strangers caste were included the slaves class that were one from classes Arab social in Arabia in the pre-Islamic period which be located in low caste of the social , so they were making with servant which refuse from nobleman make as milk , wrap up , so the strangers Arab castes were miserable caste in Arab social aristocratic.
The strangers caste life them as series from humbleness which were making servants Arab frankers as well as instruct them with dance , singing as well as the swearword and shame with black that because everments colures , so they disobey social.

Ismail and the Rise of Ismailia

Talib Jasim Al- Enizy; Khuza; Hawra; a Hassun Al

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 15, Pages 45-74

This call depends on the concentrated activities of the secret call who spread around the Islamic world calling for the reappearance of the be Waited Imam Mahdy of the progeny of Ali and Fatimah (p.u.th ).With the second half of the second century of Hegira 8th A .D.(after the Nonappearance of imam Mohammed bin Hasen Al- Askary ) the Ishmaeliya call became the greatest revolutionary wing and the most important for the She`ah , it appeared as a dynamic movement and a central organization obtain its fame speedily in a way that overcame the other She`ai movement at that time .
Non of the She`ai sect had exposed to what the Ishmaeliya in the modern and ancient history ; prejudice and defamations , rather their activities the Islamic history was distinguished with the political effectiveness and intellectual enlightenment in addition to the adoption of the social justice issue and applying it practically on the states the had established especially the Fatimiyah one
This study includes un introduction , preface , which deals with she`aism riseand development , three chapters ,the first of which deals with the Ishmaeliy rise and the third with Ishmaeliy state in Maghreb and Egypt , a set of appendix and a conclusion. It is worthily to say that Ishmaeliy state was suspected and accused with many accusations hence the fact was deformed.
The research shows the debates and arguments that this movement raised among the historians upon its rise and originality . Some of them deformed the reality or truth of this movement because thy did not understand the philosophical secret issues which they followed , on one hand ,and that the Ishmaeliy sect opposed that of the Abbasside Caliphate , on the other hand , moreover their method of keeping their organization and information secret made it very difficult for any researcher to produce the right history of its rise so that they put more than one opinion .

Monasticism it's Concept and Role in the Society

Khalid Mousa Al-Huseini; Laith Mahmoud Abood Zwen

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 15, Pages 141-172

The importance of Abbeys study has sprang from the civilizations of old city which connects with the civilization communication between religions, on the one hand, and searching in discoveries of ruins contemporaneous which contacts with, on the other hand.
In spite of the researches and studies, this study has fulfilled on " Abbeys of Al-Hira Before Islam and Their Effect on The Development of Christianity's Thought " which showed the real reasons behind abbeys' spread and their relationship with monasticism, how extent its influence and be effected by Al-Hira which its people had follow Christianity.
So this researche showed the monotheistic in linguistic and terminology with its connotation by taking in consideration its originality . Because of the connection between monotheistic and those abbeys, the researcher should show the role and the monastery's activities of monks.

The Political Activity of Dia'ul Din Al-Tabatba'I in Iran1944-1946A.D.

Ali Adum Mohammed Al-Kurdi; Mohammed Hussein Mutar Al-Bakaa

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 15, Pages 173-206

Diaul Din Al-Tabatabai is one of the most important characters that played a special role in the Iranian political arena. He witnessed three different periods of the Iranian contemporary history; the period of the Qajarid state and its fall in 1925A.D. and the Pahlavi state which witnessed two reigns, the reign of Ridha Shah 1925-1941 A.D. and his son who succeeded him Mohammed Ridha Pahlavi 1941-1979A.D. whose period was the most unique period of Iran on all levels. Starting from this point, the researcher attempted to study the intellectual and political role of Diaul Din since he was a journalist in 1905A.D. to the time when he became a prime minister in 1925A.D. then when he was sent to exile last until the time of his death in 1969A.D.
The thesis included an introduction, three chapters, conclusion and indexes. The first chapter discussed the biography and the political and journalistic activities until the coup of 1921. The chapter in is divided into three topics, the first tackled the journalistic and political activity of Diaul Din until the year 1909 while the second dealt with his real activity in journalism in late 1909 as well as his mission in Caucasus in 1920. Finally, the third is dedicated to 1919 agreement between Iran and Britain and the attitude of Diaul Din towards them.
The second chapter entitled "Revolutionary Ministry of Diaul Din Al-Tabatabai" is divided into three topics, the first is dedicated for the changes that took place in Iran after the coup 1921, while the second is dedicated for program of Diaul Din's government, the most prominent safety developments that took place in Iran and the procedures followed concerning the internal status. Finally, the last topic dealt with the foreign relations of Iran during the reign of this government and the internal changes that led to the fall of the government in the 26th of May 1921.
In the third and last chapter the researcher revealed all aspects related to the life of the studied character after the authority and through three topics. The first topic dealt with the life of Diaul Din in exile in 1921-1934 and his special activities as his participation in Al-Quds first conference in 1931 while the second is dedicated for parliamentary activity of of Diaul Din in Iran during the period 1944-1946, and the last topic tackled the political life of Diaul Din after he was released from prison in November 1946 and until his death in 1969.
The year 1905 is regarded the starting point of the political activity of Diaul Din through his journalistic work where he concentrated on the development of Iran which cannot be done without the help of the western countries as Britain. In spite of the short term of the Ministry headed by the Tabatabai, but it had a good impression in the lives of the Iranians.

Agricultural Activity in Sicily Island from Explorers' Books

Nawal Turky Musa AL; Musawy; Mohammed Raheem Hashim Mohsen Al- Habooby

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 15, Pages 243-266

The Island of Sicily is considered as one of the biggest island of Mediterranean Sea , it is located at the middle of this Sea to divide it into two parts Eastern and Western and it surrounded it from its all sides save the north – east one , which is the head of the Island ( Misseny ) city that is parted from the south of Italy , by the marine path ( the strait of misseny ) .
2- The texts of the writers who wrote about Sicily mentioned that it has an agricultural activities of wide range due to the island site , climate , water resources , fruitful soil and the varied topographic relief : mountains , plains and plates which are used by the people of Sicily to cultivate different crops .
3- In the narrations of the historian geographers and travelers , we found the variety among their texts which dealt with the agricultural activities of the Island : it included the grains , fruits , vegetable and the fruitful trees .
4- We noticed that the narrations of the historian geographers and travelers are unbalance in its dealing with the research main points , once it elaborated , other it shortened and some of them are repeated with some additions .
5- A group of the historian geographers and travelers had mentioned the Island , each of them represented the historic era which the Island lived . some of those were ( geographers ) wrote about Sicily by taking from the other geographers or historians or depending on what they had heard from the other people . The other were ( travelers ) and they had visit the Island and watched its agricultural activities so their writings were very accurate and wonderful .

Prophet Mohammed's (p.b.u.h.)Manners and principles in Spreading the Islamic Cause

Hatem Kareem Chiad

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 15, Pages 293-320

God's blessing and peace be upon our prophet (Mohammed) , his relatives and his loyal companions.
In different ages, historians ,who have different nationalities and religions, give a great deal of attention to the Islamic message because it achieved a clear and real change in the structure of the life of Arab societies and Non-Arab societies who embraced Islam. These societies lived in darkness of ignorance , so Islam guided them to the right way by which they knew God. The Prophet ,Mohammed, (pbu) came to make the principles of Islamic religion clear by calling people to Islam. Some of people believed him and the others didn’t believe for different reasons.

Features of Existential Thought in "Ayoub" by the novelist Husham Tawfeeq Al-Rikabi

Ayser Mohammad Fadhil Al-Dabo

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 15, Pages 321-360

iraq)Aim of the Research: the research deals with the existential aspects of Ayoub through analyzing the action and speech of its protagonist who leads an absurdist life and is deeply interested in sex matters. He is ultimately interested in the individual's freedom to choose his own life-style. Ayoub faced great resistance to his pursuit which the author was greatly interested in portraying in his novel which dealt with various human issues,Research Approach: The research uses the techniques of existentialism in search of aspects of this philosophy especially in relation to its protagonist. The research focuses on the loss of the temporal line in the narrative and its connection to the protagonist.Results of the Research: Many aspects of existentialism are found in the novel in terms of speech, action, and characterization. However, El-Rekabbi failed to break down the time line of the narrative to realize his existential ideology and communicate it to his readers

The Political Environment Effect on the Demographic Change of Calare City (analysis by political Geographic method)

Ibraheem Qasem Darwesh Mohammed Thalani

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 15, Pages 361-386

The demographic change of Kalar was happened due to the forced migration of the people after the seventies of the last century. The yearly rate of the population growth was 21.1% between 1977- 1987. This was the result of the forced migration operations of the population of the Region of Kurdistan, among them the people of Khanaqeen who were deported to Kalar. This was along with the Anfal operations in which the third campaign included the Karmian area. After that the remains of their families including the women, old people and children were collected in Smoud (Rizgary) Complex which belongs to Kalar in 1987.
The structural change of the geopolitics of Iraq including the falling down of the former Iraqi regime in 2003 helped the deported Kurds in other Arabic parts of Iraq to come back to Kalar , as well as , the polarization of the population of the villages and the surrounding cities , to develop the infrastructure of the economics, the education and the services.

Theology and it's New Changes

Adil Zamil Abdul Hussein Al-Zurejawi

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 15, Pages 387-422

Knowledge of Speech is science of a purely Islamic origin that has not been affected by the presence of other sciences. It emerged with its basic principles before the period of mixing between culture and ideas and sciences that served the lives of the Muslimeen. It served as a means to establish other religious sciences with the presenting of proofs and the refusal of doubts. In addition to that, other sides of the Knowledge of Speech that enlighten, characterized by challenging the non-believers inside of Islam or what comes from the outside by way of translation. There is also the share of the scholars of the knowledge of speech in adding ideas to the creed with proofs to establish the main ideas of the creed. The Islamic creed has moved in the shade of the Knowledge of Speech through difficult circumstances. This was embodied by leaving off what was negatively affecting the Islamic community. The fragility of the Knowledge of Speech from the scientific point of view was used as a tool to help shape the political atmosphere to protect the rulers.

The Role of Knowledge Management in Building the Core Capabilities (A study of a sample of the professors of scientific, researching, serving centers and consultant bureaus in Al-Kufa University)

a Tyeh Mohammed; Safa

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 15, Pages 423-458

Knowledge management is a systematic process and integrative for the coordination of activities of the organization to achieve its objectives, that the identification of the core knowledge is one of the urgent necessities of the build cognitive and intellectual, The aims of the current research to determine the nature of relationship and effect between knowledge management processes and variables in the core Competencies In the research centers at the University of Kufa and The total of sample researched is (38) which got the doctorate and master's, and used some statistical methods where used to test the research hypotheses, one of the important results there is relationship and statistical impact at the level (α≤0.05) between the knowledge management processes and all variables in the core estimators, The research found some of the most important recommendations it is work to increase the skills of university professors in the practice of knowledge and manage it to confront problems in the knowledge which confront them and provide all the facilities to get the knowledge and disseminated it by the systems of the different information technology.

Aesthetic Effectiveness of the Design System in the Final Product Design of Fabrics

Salah. H. Naji

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 15, Pages 459-490

Requires the designer fabrics knowledge, experience, skill and artistic talent, creativity, innovation and knowledge of technology in the field of fabrics and determine their use of aesthetic and functional work is design provides more opportunity for creativity and the development of new design ideas and in the production of fabrics is constantly evolving, so it became difficult for any individual access easily into the designs to suit the availability of fabrics produced because each fabric properties and characteristics of its own in terms of raw usability functionality that appear aesthetic design, here comes the role and effectiveness of systems design in relation to the principles and design elements to reflect the aesthetic and functional, environmental, space and time with the durability and look for the better through science and knowledge and employ new technologies to map the acceptance by choosing the appropriate design for each fabric in relation to the textile raw material. System design on the outside is different from the system design of the interior, but this does not mean the abolition of the existence of a trade, and even conditional on the achievement system, my design connects the outside inside, but the case design a special system who is required in accordance with and chamber functions, system of the outside is imperative and functional performance and aesthetic system as well as the inside is also in the imperative and functional performance and aesthetic but all are subject to the principles of scientific and technical control in the formation of its own because the outside is . Add to the problem and the importance of the research consisted search on the theoretical framework and three Investigation, In the first section was talking about the system design as a methodology for the operation, while the second section evolved to include elements and principles of design, system and structural design and foundation construction for the design, while the third section it which identify the raw materials entering in the manufacture of fabrics and their impact on the final product for the design of fabrics, also included the search results and discussion, as well as recommendations, as contained in the end, research on the scientific sources that the researcher was based in his research.