Spatial Differentiation of Having Cancer in Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf (2005-2011

Kefah Dakhel Obeis; Kifah Salih Al-Asadi

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 17, Pages 11-62

That the environmental pollution, affecting the Iraqi environment and the study area, in particular, has an obvious effect on the increase in number of people affected by cancer diseases, as being one of the factors causing and motivating it.
2- Those having breast, womb and bladder cancer in the study area have rapidly increased in number during the study period. The rate reached about %(15.67, 17.7, 31,67), while the rates of infections with lymphatic node, lungs and blood cancer was less than the mentioned rates reaching % (10.34, 10.46, 14.56). These numbers are higher than the any other area in Iraq. This is an obvious evidence on the size of environmental and health destruction that took place in the area.
3- The study found a correlation between the spread of the disease in the area and the economic status of the patients. Al-Najaf came first with % (54), and Al-Kufa %(28), then comes Al-Manadherah with %(18).

A Geographic Analysis of the Trading Change within the Constructional Structure of Al- Najaf Al –Ashraf City after 1990.

Mdhar Khalil Al-Omar; Fouad Abdullah Mohammed

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 17, Pages 63-86

The city of Najaf was suffer from Trading changes within the construstional structure , that cause in unbalance change and growth from planning side , so that we must be study this change from more that sides, to limitation How, Where and When to stop the random chnge.

Economic Policy and Its Social Role During the Orthodox Era

Samir Salih Al-Omar; Israa Amin Abdullah

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 17, Pages 135-162

Yathreb had distinguished with a special position in Hijaz in the Pre- Islamic era because it is an agricultural area attracted emigrations from different places ; the oppressed Jewish in Palestine and the tribes of Oas and Khazraj who emigrated from Yemen after the callable of the dam of Ma`ereb , the Jewish occupied the first place on the economic levels while the Arab came in the second place which resulted in a conflict ended with the Arab domination.
The Jewish played a great role in stir up the hatred and enmity among Arabs so many wars started between the Oas and Khazraj but the rise of Islam and Prophet Mohammed had made Yathreb as a place of the Islamic state where it welcomed the Prophet and the emigrants ( Mohajerein ) hence it was called Al- Madeenah Al- Monawarah (the Enlightened City )and became the capital of the Islamic state .
Had put forward a series of legislations that organized the individual and the society life , and the Prophet`s procedures in Al- Madeenah affected the whole society :- Al- Mo`akhaa principle which the Prophet had applied between the emigrants and the supporters (Mohajerein and Ansaar) supported their religious cohesion , replaced ( Rabetat Al- Hilf ) which the Arab Had followed in the Pre- Islamic era and united the supporters(Ansaar) who were the landlord and the newcomers who were the emigrants of Mecca . Al-Saheefah (the Leaf ) represented a constitution for the Muslims organized their relations with each other gathered them under one leadership which is the Prophet. For the Muslim `s relations with the Jewish , Al-Saheefah had organized them but the Jewish had betrayed the Muslim which made the Prophet send them out of Al- Madeenah , the Prophet depended on efficiency to select the waly and after his death the Muslims divided into currents that had debates upon authority .
Due to the alliance of Abu –Baker ,Omer bin Al- Khatab and Abu Obidah and after a prolong arguments and debates between the (Mohajerein and Ansaar) Quraysh wined . The Caliphate faced the apostasy movements that includes Al jazirah Parts with a group of people who were un settled with their religion and whom the Caliphate face carefully ; while Abu –Baker prevented their participation in the Islamic conquests , Omer bin Al- Khatab allowed their participation without being a leadership and Othman had allowed their reuniting with the society .
The Islamic conquests consequences reflected on the Islamic society ;the female slave became within most of the Arab houses where they carried their countries` civilizations and customs and became mothers of Arab sons , the slaves were depended on in all the crafts that the Arab refused them .The problem of the great numbers of the fighters who leaved their family to fight in far fronts had raised, their wives or women were subjected to the temptation danger . For the economic aspects the Caliphate took a series of the economic procedures that affected the civil aspects , hence the first emigrants, Ansaar and the Prophet`s relatives had the priorities in the grants and that created the difference between people and resulted in the riot and disturbance during the era Othman bin Affan

The penitentiary Direction in the Najaf journalist ( 1921 – 1958)

Ez alden A. alrasoul Al madani

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 17, Pages 163-186

The intellectual movement in Najaf had witnessed considerable development. It was considered as a source of inspiration for the intellectual movement that was witnessed by Iraq as well as a center for the spiritual movement in Iraq. It is worthy of note that the press hadinfiltrated into the heart of the political, social and religion life. No view or belief would be disseminated, nor would a political or revolutionary party succeed, without the support and care of the press. No political or social system would fail, nor would a reform or economic project collapse without the opposition of the press, which had played a paramount role in the dissemination of reform views. It had also attempted to improve theprevalent situation through observing the negative cases and suggesting solutions for such cases.
The press in Najaf had devoted a great deal of attention toeducation, particularly because education and its curricula constitute the basis for the development of any nation. The calls of the press in this direction came as an answer to the policy of thecolonists through which they targeted the Iraqi people by depriving them from knowledge and science, by excluding education from the requirements of national development.
The press in Najaf had paid sufficient attention to its purposeful andconstructive kind of criticism to the most salient negative phenomena from which education had suffered. The aim of the press was to improve the prevalentsituation. Eradicating illiteracy and fighting ignorance represented the aspiration of most journalists, even when this would cause them to be exposed to some life-threatening risks.
The press in Najaf had realized the fact that knowledge is the basis for civilization and culture, and that illiteracyis the monster of ignorance and backwardness, behind which a number of social, political and economic reasons lie. However, the press had endeavored to, in the face of this social challenge, publish many articles calling forfighting illiteracy which had become a major characteristic of the Iraqi society. The percentage of illiterate people was more than 90% of the total population up to 1946.

The Economic Method in Nahjul Balagha A Contemporary reading

Haider Abd Al-Mutalib Al-Bakaa

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 17, Pages 187-234

Imam Ali (Peace be upon him), who is indeed the Quran Al-Natiq with whom the right goes every whore he goes, could interpret the holy Quran, putting the economic theory into practice, turning away from all other economic doctrines and leaving his impression through his words which are considered a treasure of knowledge and application for the economic, the financial and the monetary politics. Imam Ali (PBUH) government, despite the shortage of time, the wars and troubles it had encountered, had given a great interest to support the economic basis for the ideal Islamic state, which would have turned the earth into paradise if it had lasted for a longer time, this government had been characterized by justice, equality, honesty, safety, raising the economic competence, applying religion and Islamic legislation the achieve the lasting development and social security, reflecting the pure picture of Islam which can never be achieved in applying the material sides without the belief in God (Allah) and the supernatural since the relation with the Almighty God (Allah) have to dominate all the economic relations, starting from the intention to work, its beginning, in the course of it and after achieving the product, it's circulation and distribution this can't be found in any other economic doctrines, and it's sufficient for Imam Ali that he had summonsed the whole economy into two words in Arabic: " That who is thrifty, will never be need" to the extent that he can never be trespassed as the first founder of the science of economy from the theoretical and practical point of view.

Modern Irrigation Techniques in Al-Najaf Governorate And Available Spatial Possibilities

Safaa Majid Abdul-Sahib al-Modafer

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 17, Pages 235-278

The modern irrigation techniques are of great importance to irrigate crops and trees in arid and semi-arid and suffering from scarcity of water resources as the irrigation many ways, according to irrigated land and means many of the farmers saw their crops mainly by deliberate upon the nature of the crop is grown when they have the irrigation water equally hard, however many of them are using large amounts of irrigation may be due when it difficult to control in these waters so that the cost of maintaining the yield expected result to reduce wasteful consumption, and often irrigation is in excess of the need for costly or harmful entirely, is that bad selection or design of the proposed system for irrigation undoubtedly lead to low efficiency and poor utilization of water for irrigation, especially in the study area, which suffers from the problem of low levels of the Euphrates River.
Knows irrigation as the water from reaching the soil and agricultural land, either by nature through precipitation types or industrial quantity required in a timely manner, this is linked to the process of irrigation Successful several objectives the most important of rationing water and soil conservation problem of salinization and was an old farmers using irrigation methods Traditional and after technological development became possible to use several methods lead to rationing of water and watering crops without excess, has been used in the study area are two of the ways of modern irrigation is drip irrigation and sprinkler irrigation, and is intended drip irrigation delivery of irrigation water to the plants the amount calculated in a manner slow points separate or continuously through small parts called emitters and is commonly used to irrigate crops, vegetables and shrubs ornamental and forestry projects and there are two types of irrigation in this way some of which are known to irrigation (surface) where the stretching lines emitters on the surface or buried emitters into the soil defines drip (under the surface) and are based on soil quality and the quality of the plant cultivated has been used this method of irrigation in the study area, especially in the Plateau area of Najaf, which are grown vegetable crops, as well as used to irrigate palm as also used in the irrigation of ornamental trees in the streets and squares in the city of Najaf, either spray irrigation is one of modern irrigation systems which are used to irrigate desert areas with sandy soil, which can not retain water for a long time that this kind of types of irrigation is suitable for most soils Najaf province, and uses this type of irrigation techniques for watering crops through the use of sprinklers in the form of rain industry has used spraying pivotal role in irrigate wheat and barley in Najaf Plateau has achieved great success has also been used to spray green squares in the city of Najaf.
Through the study shows that the surface waters of the study area are suffering from the problem of low water levels and pollution problem as the use of traditional irrigation methods affect the water level on the one hand and increasing pollution of Education and decline in production on the other
As it turns out through the study of groundwater in the study area are unfit for irrigation according Calibrator global irrigation as they affect the organizations irrigation and cause damage and Tsdi must therefore be filtered groundwater before delivery to organizations irrigation so as to keep them from damage and to improve production soil conservation and pollution, has been used as a water filtering system in the indicative farm typical of the Agriculture Department of Najaf, which has achieved outstanding production.
As it turns out through the study that there is no right policies by the Ministry of Agriculture and Ministry of Water Resources to the Ministry of Environment to keep the water resources of the lower elevations and pollution and increase the production of agricultural land has fallen agricultural production in recent times so dramatically in the study area, in addition to the lack of the existence of a real and effective support to farmers in the study area, especially in Najaf and plateau of lack material support or Bttaghizhm of the modern irrigation techniques, Most farmers located at the plateau is undeveloped plastic tubes susceptible to damage as a result of saline groundwater.

Epistemology by the Muslims

Adil Zamil Abdul-Hussein Al-Zeregawi

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 17, Pages 279-318

There is no special and comprehensive definition of knowledge, it refers to science in its wide meaning, and hence all the definitions are not real but verbal. Epistemology was presented as an independent science in Europe since three centuries ago, the first who wrote about it was the English philosopher June Luke in 1960, while, for the Muslims, it suffered from stability and inactivity for a long time, where imitation dominated thinking, and this theory was scattered within their philosophical research and did not appear as independent title or subject as what had happened in the West ،Epistemology occupies an important status within the mental and philosophical researches , it represents the foundation stone of philosophy as it the base of the thought that looks for truth realization and to obtain certainty to produce an integrated theory of the human knowledge، Epistemology in the Islamic philosophy is distinguished with certain characteristics in spite of its different directions, the Muslim philosophers deals with this theory in un independent sections within their writings, we may found it in the works of Avicenna, Al-Sahrwardy, Al-Shirazy Saderuldeen, Al-Sader MoHammed Baqhir and Al-Tabataba`y Mohammed Hussain،The division of Epistemology is not a restricted one, it could be subjected to more than one division according to different considerations, knowing its stages has a great effect on evaluating its different types that it shows how to reach the predicates which have important effects on the other sciences. The truth criteria do not go beyond the knowledge frame, where knowledge itself distinguishes the right knowledge and the wrong knowledge, the teal standard of distinguishing is the axiomatic knowledge.

Al-Sayid Hasen Mudaris & His Political Role in Iran 1870-1937

Ahmed Shakir Abd Al-Alaq

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 17, Pages 319-360

Imam God Hassain Moders adapt of impotart role pivotal in Iran during his life and his engage in many from impotaut decisions politicals and economic , he start house of shoraw (Parliameat) national by statement active member and opposion towards tyranny that it worked by governments Iran in this time , and against found occupation in every kinds.
But he not stay his role in house of representatives , but his work with poople in protestant , and result this he Imam to many penalize and enter the prisons during long periods .
The busy and inspire or fill with to Imam defence to independence iran and appreans or removel (tip off) plans of policy of British in iran sinc sign agreement august 1919 , his minfesto or telegram that against this policy and his defence , in order to refuse obligazition that it is tired nation in iran . and also his note role in during period that after rebelin faburary 1921 , his opposion to policy state and he defence to right of nation iranism unitl when matter fall family Qajar , he opinin to this matter and he took his your self appeance circumstances policy Ridha Khan and his wish or desine in rule in iran , and continun imam god Moderes in this ward that rise his during rule Ridh Shah Pahlave and by agreat from post , and his opposion by strong strategy that his adiministrative by modern society in iran and westernism , but his eause this attitude overpag jis life and deau price to this attitudes , that is assassination by from mens safety iranism by order from Shah Redh Pahlave after arrest to many years age , and this result finish important stage from stages conflict or struggle between inistitution of religion in iran and tiles monarchy in iran .

Economic Integration and Planning of the Economies Of The Arab Land "Analytical Vision of the Economy of the Arab Oil”

Mayyada Abdul Malik Mohammed Sabri

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 17, Pages 361-388

There is no doubt that the relationship between economics and politics is a close relationship and reciprocal impact in the whole world, but in the Arab states the matter takes the dimensions of the most comprehensive and the most impact, and cannot be separated, if we are to achieve progress on the political front must him on the economic front, so it was an emphasis on economic integration in light of economic planning, focus has been subject of research in addressing the importance of Arab economic integration being is an essential means are needed to achieve the renaissance of Arab States and its evolution, since the world is undergoing a lot of changes important economic and which are based on economic openness that translate international trade agreements, which seeks to achieve level better living through optimum utilization of available resources with the work on the development of these natural resources, has ascended Find out the importance of economic integration and the stages and the experience of Arab countries in this area and then draw to see his analysis of the economic reality the Arab oil down to the inter conclusions and recommendations that serve the search path. And that the most important creation of an open economy react with other economies and through achieving real-Arab economic cooperation through the establishment of an Arab security system seeks to achieve stability in the region, who is a patron of the Arab integration.

Orientation & its Role in the Conflict of the Civilization

Mohammed Abd Ali Hussein Al kazaz

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 17, Pages 389-402

Thankfully the broad mercy and forgiveness and Basset his hand over all slaves, his praise, and peace and blessings be upon the noblest of God's prophets Muhammad and upon his family and companions . Represents a dialogue method civilized and sophisticated in dealing with all the views of cultural, artistic and religious to promote peaceful coexistence and to avoid the emergence of crises civilized immerse humanity in a dark tunnel.
The dialogue of civilizations and religions humanitarian mission and the option of a systematic and demand realistic and legitimate, including the promise of recognition of the other and right to exist because without non-existent conditions of life Secure and conditions of civil peace and social, but the problematic real facing humanity today is not in different civilizations, cultures and religions, lies in the issue of the management of this difference and diversity rationally and objectively away from the tendencies of intolerance and extremism and domination that civilizations do not wrestle with each other, but Taatlaqah and integrated to produce a civilization New benefit from each other, therefore the dialogue is the salvation of humanity from the scourge of wars and conflicts, ideological and religious. The West owe it to the Muslims for their science included all aspects of life, from medicine and mathematics to astronomy and Rehabilitation as the West and the Muslim bloggers for orientalists who have made efforts to define the West to Islam more than ever before, and they achieve, printing and publishing Arabic manuscripts .
Title "Orientalism global and dialogue of civilizations" Orientalism and its impact on global civilizational dialogue. Search consists of two sections, the first section is titled "Global Orientalist thought." The second topic is titled: "civilizational dialogue and Orientalist dialogue". As for the sources used in our research, we used a purely literary sources in this research have helped us in the completion of this research, and pursued my search method in the completion of the sequence of substantive research ideas in order to reach the desired results of this research humble.

The Bases of Iraqi Totalitarianism Viewpoint of Hannah Arendt as an Approach

Qais Nasir Rahi

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 17, Pages 403-434

This research aims to study the bases of totalitarianism Iraqi by employing the viewpoint of Hannah Arendt, which is one of the most exhibit produce for the totalitarianism regime studythen what happened in Iraq during theBa'th regime and especially the period of Saddam's rule, had been in other countries as Germany Nazi , and the Soviet Union and the role of Stalinism,These regimes studied by Arndt But the aim of this research is not the approach that might be clear because they belong to the family of one tyrant, but employing of Arndt bases in the understanding of these regimes and its approach with Iraq.
Through bases developed by Shapiro after studying Arendt notes that it corresponds to totalitarianism whether Iraqi leader, party, ideology, leader - Saddam - the firm was worship of the Ba'th Party and its mass organizations were wide,the ideology they were linked to the legen darys ideis unrealistic.In addition ,the three base sIn Iraq high lights two other base sbut are based security Iraq is known for it ssecurity in stituti on snotorious under Saddam and this in dicatedby Are ndtinherstudyof Nazismand Stalinism and the role of these cretpolice, but ith asmadea full chapter tothestudy.In Iraq, the security institutions contributed to consolidate totalitarianism, either Fifth base is the economy or the rentier state wealth oil rather than contribute to the renaissance of Iraq contributed to consolidating the Baath regime since any worker development by the state as a result of high oil prices, especially in the seventies he attributes Ba'th for themselves, and helps them simple people in the publicity for it.

The Role of The Religious Authority in the Convergence Among the Islamic Doctrines

Taghreed Jasim Atiya

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 17, Pages 435-462

تعود الخطوات المتخذة في سبيل التقريب بين المذاهب الإسلامية إلى قرون من الزمن وهي ليست بالجديدة أو وليدة الصدفة بل جاءت نتيجة شعور مترسخ عند القادة الدينيين والشخصيات الإصلاحية بضرورة العمل للتقارب بين كل المكونات الإسلامية لما شهده العالم الإسلامي من صراعات وصدامات وصلت حد إراقة الدماء لأسباب لايمكن وصفها إلا بالتافهة ويأتي هذا البحث (( دور المرجعية الدينية في التقريب بين المذاهب الإسلامية )) لتناول موضوعة التقارب ودعوات الوحدة الإسلامية بدراسة تاريخية تحليلية .
إذ يتناول البحث الجذور التاريخية الحديثة والمعاصرة لتطور العلاقة بين علماء الدين السنة والشيعة والمجالات التي حاولوا من خلالها تحقيق الوحدة الاسلامية والجهود المبذولة في هذا السياق وما رافق ذلك من عقد مؤتمرات واجتماعات وإصدار فتاوى تزيل حالة الفرقة والغموض وتقدم طروحات عقائدية فكرية تهدف الى رفض الفتنة ويمر البحث على المشتركات الوطنية والسياسية التي تجمع بين عامة المسلمين التي كان لكل المذاهب موقفاً موحداً منها كأساس للتوحد والتقارب ومنها على سبيل المثال (( القضية الفلسطينية )) والاعتداءات التي تعرضت لها البلاد العربية والإسلامية وما صدر من علماء المسلمين ومفكريهم من بيانات وفتاوى ومن كل المذاهب تقف موحدة أمام هذه الاعتداءات التي وجد فيها المصلحون والمفكرون طريقاً لتحقيق التقارب المنشود .
اعتمد البحث على مصادر متنوعة كان أهمها كتب التراجم والشخصيات والصحف التي تناولت هذا الموضوع المهم والخطير وقد جاء مدوناً لجذور تاريخية شهدت فيها حركة التقريب نشاطاً ملحوظاً أسفر عن تشكيل جمعيات وروابط بهذا الاتجاه .

A Model for the Pragmatic Analysis of Gossip

Fareed H. Al-Hindawi; Hassan H. Abukrooz

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 17, Pages 9-38

Gossip is a positive or a negative evaluative information about contextually determined and deviant acts of third party(ies) (most often non-present, but potentially present in the conversation). However, gossip is a broad topic that has been approached from different angles. Several studies have attempted to tackle gossip pragmatically. Yet, those attempts have suffered from many gaps and drawbacks, in addition to the insufficient accounts that characterize them. Accordingly, this paper is an attempt to develop a pragmatic model for the analysis of gossip. This model is based upon two relevant previous models of gossip as well as the pragmatic observations made by the researchers concerning the topic.
The validity of the developed model has been tested by means of analyzing twenty gossip situations taken form Jane Austen’s Emma. As a result, the developed model has proved its validity in pragmatically analyzing gossip on the basis of the pragmatic findings and conclusions arrived at in that novel.

Pun in English: Towards identifying its Equivalent Device(s) in Arabic

Siham Mohammed Hasan Al-Kawwaz

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 17, Pages 39-58

The term pun refers to a common rhetorical device that involves playing upon words which are similar in form but different in meaning. It seems to be a universal phenomenon since it appears in literatures of all natural languages. In Arabic, it is observed that Arab authors are at odds when they write about this device. They often differ in identifying what represents it in Arabic rhetoric to the extent that they refer to distinctly different devices as its counterparts like tawriya, jinās or sometimes both. This draws a lot of confusion and raises some inquiries: Does tawriya equate jinās? if not, which one may represent pun in English? and what are the main reasons that have often caused such confusion and mismatching? Therefore, the present paper aims at investigating the rhetorical devices which are similar in their mechanism to the phenomenon of punning in English in an attempt to figure out what represents it in Arabic. It also draws attention to the formal typology of this device in English to illustrate the sense of mismatching which have appeared in previous studies when referring to its counterparts in Arabic.
Key words: pun, wordplay, rhetoric, paronomasia, tawriya, jinās.

A study of metonymical and metaphorical shift of meaning In selected examples

Ali Abdul Ilah Ghan

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 17, Pages 59-82

It has been seen that a language may gain or lose lexical items . Additionally , the meaning or the semantic representation of words may change, by becoming broader or narrower, or by shifting. A lexical item may undergo a shift in meaning . For example, the word knight once meant 'youth' but shifted to 'mounted man -at- arms'. Silly used to mean 'happy' in old English. By the middle English period it shifted to mean ''naïve'', and only in modern English does it mean 'foolish'.
The present study tries to identify the main differences between the metonymical and metaphorical shift of meanings used in the selected examples. It is hypothesized that both metonymy and metaphor are figures of speech; the former works by contiguity(association) between two concepts, while the latter works by the similarity between them. The steps to be followed in this study are exploring semantic change , identifying its types and investigating the metonymical and metaphorical shift of meanings, showing their differences and correlation used in the selected examples.
The analysis of the data has shown that metaphor and metonymy, though quite different in their mechanism, may work together seamlessly. A metaphor produces a new concept in the target domain, a concept that is similar to the origin concept of the source domain because it contains certain elements of the source concept. Metonymy is quite different from metaphor- when talking metonymically, the same domain is remained. An element from the original concept is borrowed, but the links to the other elements are remained. The relations between the general objects and the things or aspects belonging to it are only possible within one domain. A metonymical shifts shift the reference of the word from a standard referent to an essential element of the underlying concept. Finally, it is necessary to observe that metonymy and metaphor are not mutually exclusive, but rather complemented one another . They are interacted in practice to achieve and enhance cohesion and coherence of the utterances.