Averus classification of the proof according to ontology and cause./ An analytic comparative study.

amah Mohammed Ibraheem; Hader abdul- Zahra Al- Khaza

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 19, Pages 13-40

Averus has a criterion for classsifying evidence, and this factor is the motivation for classifying the evidence in to its main branches other than its secondary onse, because the secondary classes have their owm bases which are different from the main ones. The researcher studies both typed of classification in this paper.
According to this, the title of the paper becomes (Averus Classification of evidence according to Being and Reason: An analytic comparative study). It is clear that the researcher uses three basic methods in this study: descriptive, analytic and comparative comparative methods,

Evaluating the environmental effect of the industrial area in al-Diwaniyah city.

Abdul-SahibNaji al- Baghdady; Baidaa Abd Ul-Hussain Al-Hussainy

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 19, Pages 41-70

The increasing publicly interest in environmental issues and particularly in accompanying development processes to request different environmental impacts assessment (EIA) for development projects in order to dicover environmental problems and confine the suitable methods to deal with these problems from the beginning of their work to be based on saying wisdom (prevention is better than drug), so that we could achieve agreement between the development processes and environment protection or other words, we achieve sustainable development. The different international and regional agencies turn to enter environmental assessment processes of development projects as a part of the feasibility studies for these projects to confine the best alternatives for implementation.
In all countries and advanced countries previously, the regular and legal frameworks agree with the importance of carrying out environmental impacts assessment study for the new projects, extension, and renewal independent projects at early stage from planning process for these projects.

Spatial Geographic variation of the election participation in Karbala governorate for the two election cycles (2005- 2010)/ A study in election geography.

Majeed Hameed Shihab; Haider Abdul- Ameer Rizooqh

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 19, Pages 71-100

Election Geography is considered one of the modern application fields of political geography , it concerned with place variety (geographical) of election voting and its modes , reasons and their explanation and analysis in addition to its concerned with place organization of elections and study the political , economic and social election programs of competition party's and their effection on the elected behavior of electors It's also concerned with follows' election system and geographical reasons of it dependence applicates and solve how its problems. So the study is concentrated on its used aim and methodical the studied of spatial variation in turnout for elections of the karbala province of two election cycles (2005-2010). , the of the study results showed that the elevated electors level of social economics, and teaching decrease from their affection by sectarianism and tribalism loyalty and increases from their concerned level by the election programs of the political party's through given their election votings the results of parliament elections proved that the electors are voting by their sectarianism and nationalist loyalty urge and by guiding from the religions ,tribalism and political references that wich pushed the electors to vote according to their desires , sectarianism and national directions This ultimately depends on the political agreements which the government is formed according to them by method far away from the democratic progress, thus sorted these agreement weak government cannot make strict decisions without back to the other edges in the evidence it cannot rise with the actual service and improved the social and economic level of the people, it also cannot achieve the security stabilization in the Iraq . finally we can say that the political , ideological social economics and geographical factors were had the biggest role in the variance of the election behavior in the province.

Sayed Mohammed Mohammed Baqhir al- Sader Critic of the Marks dialectic theory

Hamzah Jabir Sultan; Alaa Shannoon Mater

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 19, Pages 101-128

The Marxian thought based on the dialectical theory, the general theory of socialism and communism, its style is to consider the nature events and its method in research and knowledge is to discover the thinking contradiction and debates, it looks at life, Man and universe as material with auto-developing, there is no Creator nor creature. The world multi events, for it , are different aspects of the mobile material or subject, world develops according to the rules of the subject action, it does not need for a n integrated reason or mind, so dialectics for Marx is the science of the general rules of the action of the outer world or for the human thought. Dialectics considers the material as the base of everything and all life aspects should subject to it otherwise we could not believe it. Rather Sayed Mohammed Mohammed Sadiq Al-Sader does not agree with the dialectics in this field, material is not the base, there are things that do not subject to material but they are exist and to deny them means to deny reality or existence, and that what motivated Sayed Mohammed Al-Sader to critique it.
The dialectical theory is not the innovation of the Marxian thought, rather its roots belong to the Germany philosopher Hegel who put it as a method for his philosophy, Marx adopted it, with some modifications, and on it he had built his ideology in the fields of policy, sociology and economics. It also based on the idea of reasoning cancelling so as to cancelling the reason of the universe then to cancel the existence of the universe Creator, by pretending that the material is the base of everything and that it develops by itself without a developer, and that all life aspects belong to material. Sayed Mohammed Al-Sader critique of the dialectical theory based on the real and scientific evidences, he does not use the metaphysical evidences in his critique, the scientific evidences reveal the mistake of this theory which could not face the scientific development. Marxism, with its dialectical theory aims at obtaining a result says that the economic factors affect the human history movement, and the human societies, due to their contradictories, must reach a society without contradictories, this is the Communist society.

Validity and invalidity between the understandable and transferred rules.

Haider Jabbar Edan; Hasen Abdul- Majjed al- Sha

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 19, Pages 129-158

Al Shaa and Alaalal between the movable and reasonable
And yet, it has striven linguists , grammar in order to preserve our language and preservation of precious loss , scratching , and were tired themselves for delivery to those who come after them intact and detailed. and this Constitution blessed to be read correctly , and understand the true understanding ; because he came down the language of the Arabs , The language that scientists themselves tired of delivery to us is the language of the Arabs facets acoustic , structural and morphological , structural and grammatical , lexical and semantic .
It is a detective who stood by , and were tired themselves in their delivery to us detective sound , and morphological , and the efforts of scientists in this field are clear and obvious to the reader , A substantial part of these efforts are still of great value to the present day , and the Department of few need to lesson again , and re-examine meditation and audit the service of our language gems , and this service is connected to the Koran , and specialists in Arabic , and Muslims in general .
The ideas mentioned by ancient scholars in this field does not represent a scientific fact , but it is an image that brings us closer to it , what was known as the Arab citizen of this case, and that this position ill , and this is the subject of health . These ideas are give and take , and the evidence on this to say that the acoustic and morphological studies of contemporary deployment of new ideas closer to the logic , and Altesaran voice and morphological , and this is the biggest proof that what was said by ancient scholars to this day met to develop.

The Qura`nic story textuality in the contemporary Palestinian Poetry.

Ali Motory; Atty Obayyat

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 19, Pages 159-190

يعد التناص (intersexuality) من أبرز التكنيكات الفنية والوسائل الإثرائية التعبيرية الذي كثِرَ توظيفه في الشعر العربي المعاصر عامةً والشعر الفلسطيني خاصةً، بوصفه ضرباً من تقاطع النصوص الذي يعمل علي تخصيب الرؤية الفنية وتعميقها ويسهم بقوة في عملية التطور الداخلي للقصيدة ويدحض عنها الخطابية و أوحال السطحية.فالتشكيل بالتناص لاسيما "تناص القصص القرآنية"، كان له الأثر البالغ في بنية الخطاب الشعري الفلسطيني المعاصر، فمعظم شعراء فلسطين قد إفادوا منه، ووظفوه في أعمالهم الأدبية؛ لخلق عالم شعري مشحون بالدلالات الفنية وبلورة الحاضر من خلال تجربة الماضي. فهذا الأمر حدا بالشاعر الفلسطيني علي إعادة بناء النص الغائب وفق رؤيته المعاصرة،تمهيداً للتعبير عن أفكاره وقضاياه الوطنية المعاصرة ومن ثم الإنتقال بالنص الشعري إلي آفاق دينية أكثر رحابة بغية تفجير طاقات النص وإضفاء عليه جانب من القداسة الدينية لتوليد دلالات جديدة تخدم تطلعات الشعب الفلسطيني نحو الثورة والتحرر، والصبر والتشبث بالأرض ومقارعة العدوّ الصهيوني وإن طال أمد الصراع.فهذا المقال عبر المنهج التوصيفي التحليلي بصدد معالجة ظاهرة التناص القصصي القرآني ودلالاتها في الشعر الفلسطيني المعاصروبيان مدي تأثير التناصات القرآنية في تخصيب وإثرائها النصوص الشعرية والكشف عن مدي فاعليتها الفنية في توليد دلالات جديدة من شأنها أن تدعم قضية الشعب الفسطيني في نضاله ضدّ المحتل.
الكلمات الدليلة:الشعر الفلسطيني المعاصر، التناص، القصة القرآنية، الحقول الدلالية.

A study of the technical Qur`anic Image according to the psychological method, the stories of Zakariyah and Mariam as a practical model.

Ali Motory; im ammory

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 19, Pages 191-220

Psychological science improved and created a close relationship with literary criticism. The reason for this fact is psychological reading of literature. In literary criticism, the school of psychology reviews literature from psychological point of view and increases the artistic image of the work. Nobody denies the influence of the Holy Quran on human psyche. In this research, the artistic images created in Quranic stories are explored in the framework of new literary criticism in line with literary schools. Two Quranic stories from Sura Maryam (SA) are selected. They are the story of Zakaria and the story of Mary and her child (God's peace be upon them). Both stories are analyzed psychologically and the influence of artistic images is mentioned. It has a direct effect on the human psyche. The reason for this fact is that Quranic stories are short. These stories include human mission and guidance towards light, mercy and magnanimity. We found out that artistic image has a direct influence on the reader’s psyche. This research aims to indicate the influence of artistic image on the reader’s psyche. This is a descriptive-analytical research.
Keywords:Artistic Image,School of Psychology, Quran stories, Zachariah (as),Maryam(Q).

The plural in the oratory of Fatima bint Imam al-Hussain( P,U,Th)/ a morphologic study in structure and significance.

Nisreen Abdullah Shannoof

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 19, Pages 221-286

The aim of research is to deal with carry out a morphological study about the plural forms in the speech of Fatima Bint AlHussein (Peace be upon them) which she gave before the people of Kufa after her return from Kerbala. Some of those plurals are:
First: Jam' Al-Muthakkar Al Salim (plural form of masculine: baneeh)
Second: Jam' Al-Mu'annath Al Salim (plural form of feminine: salawat),
Third: Al-Takseer Plurals:
1-anfus,
2- ibad,
3- quloob,
4- itra,
5- awlad,
6- manaqib,
7- alsinah,
8- razaya,
9- qawm,
Fourth: Pronouns indicating plural forms:
1- waw aljamaa: tahtadoon,
2- naa almaf'ool bihi: akramna akramnaa
Fifth: singular connotation indicating plural in her words:
do you know which hand of yours that stabbed us.
And what people came to fight us.
And how you came to fight us.
And you have become unable to hear and see.
And your eyesight have become weak and unclear.
I depended on studying structures of those plurals, and the meanings, on the old and modern books of linguistics and morphology

Al- Khamissiyah from 1891 to 1916, A historical study

Abdul- Aal Waheed Abbood Al- Esawy

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 19, Pages 287-304

Having surveyed the accounts contained in the documents consulted in this research, it appears that the political and social factors as well as the personal interests had contributed much to the events that led to the establishment of Khamisiya for some reason. All the problems, differences and yet convergence created a state of unity and coherence. This led Britain being an occupation state, to the exploitation of important location of Khamisiya and thus to make Hamad Al- Khamis a strong ally to the British to Protect their interests and as a result of that many changes accrued.

The disproved writings- A study of the poetry written on clothes and things in the Abbasside era

Emad Cheghaim Ewaid

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 19, Pages 305-324

تحاول الدراسة إماطة اللثام عن بعض الحقائق النصّية ؛ من خلال الولوج إلى المعاني المتخفّية تحت القشرة النصيّة ، واتخذت الدراسةالأشعار المكتوبة على الملابس والأشياء الأٌخَر كالمعازف والطبول والوسائد والستائر وصدور المجالسعيِّنَةً إجرائية للكتابة المنفية خارج الأُطر الثقافية .
تدور النصوص المكتوبة على الملابس في إطار السلطة والمجتمع وهي بهذا تحمل تشظِّيات الوعي في العصر العباسي الواقعة بين المُقَدَّسوالمُدَنَّس ، اي بين المقولات الأخلاقية ونقيضها ، ومع ما تحمله هذهِ النصوص من هامشية في المنظومة المعرفية في العصر العباسي إلّا أنّها مع القراءة الثقافية قد تُزعْزعُ بعض المُسلّمات الراكزة في الفكر الابستمولوجي ؛ لأنَّ الملابس والأشياء الأُخر تُعدُّ نافذة ً صغيرة ً للحرية وهي من النوافذ المزعجة ؛ لأنها تربط بين الكتابي والايقوني ، لذا فهي من أغنى النصوص التي يمكن أن يلامسها الباحث من عدّة زوايا .
اختار الباحث في هذه ِ الدراسة منهجا ً نقديا ً يتَّكىءُ على طروحات النقد الثقافي مع الأخذ بالجوانب الجمالية التي تُمَثّل المدخل الرئيس للوصول إلى البؤرة النصية ، ويزعُمُ الباحث أنَّه ُ سوف يقرأ هذه النصوص قراءةً جديدة ً لا تعتمدُ على متوسطات قرائية سابقة ، بل يعمد إلى النصوص ِ ويعالجها على وفقالمظاهر والأبعاد كُلِّها.

Naseer Al-Dean Al- Toosy and the Fall of Baghdad by the Moghuls (656A.H/ 1258A.D), Ahistoric analytic study

Najih Jameel al- Safi

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 19, Pages 325-342

لا ريب أنّ سقوط الخلافة العباسية، وإنهيار الدولة. أثّر بشكل عميق في تاريخ العالم عامة، وتاريخ آسيا خاصة، فقد سيطر الأيلخانيون على الطرق سنيناً طويلةً، حتى جاء القره قونيولو والآق قونيولو فاجتاحوا المنطقة، وصار للقبيلة لا الدولة القول الفصل في سياسة المنطقة، ولكنّ التطور الخطير الذي اجتاح المنطقة ظهور القوّة العثمانية الصاعدة، وصراعها مع قُوَّةٍ أخرى لا تقلُّ عنها قوة، إنهم الصفويون، وإن منطقة جنوبي غرب آسيا فيها ثلاث أمم قوية، العرب، الفرس، الترك، وقد اُزيح العرب بأثر الغزو المغولي عن المسرح السياسي العالمي ليبقى الفرس والترك في صراعٍ دائمٍ حتى اليوم، وإذا نجح الفرس والترك (العثمانيون) لملمة أطراف دولهم، بقي العرب في ركود سياسي تغلّبت فيه القبيلة على الدولة، وانفتح الباب على مصراعيه لغزو الاستعمار العالمي للمنطقة وتقسيمها بينهم.

Standard Ayzenhour effect on arabic country –historical stadies-

ed Baqer Alaraji

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 19, Pages 343-364

كانت المنطقة العربية وما زالت احدى المناطق التي تجلت فيها مظاهر الاهتمام الاميركي سياسيا واقتصاديا، بعد ظهور الولايات المتحدة الاميريكية كمنافس قوي للوجود السوفيتي في المنطقة العربية بعد الحرب العالمية الثانية (1939 – 1945).
وكان لتمركز العلاقات الدولية حول مركزي استقطاب أثره البالغ والكبير على احوال الوطن العربي السياسية، فقد أدى انقسام العالم إلى معسكرين، إلى انقسام عربي داخلي تمثل بالتوجه نحو اعتناق أحد الاتجاهين، هذا على الصعيد الرسمي، فقد ظهرت نزعات محلية فيها تنتصر للاتجاه الاشتراكي ممثلا بالقوة العالمية الجديد التي يمثلها الاتحاد السوفيتي واخرى مؤيدة للمنهج الرأسمالي الذي تقف على رأسه الولايات المتحدة الاميركية لكن الصبغة الاغلب والخطوة الاوسع كانت من نصيب الرأسمالية.
وكانت النتيجة سلسلة من الخيبات التي لحقت بالوطن العربي، تحمل وزرها الاكبر المواطن العربي الذي تعرض للاحباط وتجرع المرارة، فان الاختيار العاطفي اوقعها اسيرة معمعة الحرب الباردة بين القطبين، فما امسكت بلدانها لا بالاشتراكية وعدالتها الاجتماعية المنتظرة، ولا استطاعت بناء مرتكزات البناء الرأسمالي ولا تخلصت من الهيمنة.
وقد يعتقد البعض ان تأريخية العلاقات العربية – الاميركية ترتبط بما سمي بازمة السويس وما تبعه من عدوان ثلاثي (اسرائيلي، بريطاني، فرنسي) على مصر، ثم الفراغ الذي تركه انسحاب بريطانيا من مصر والخليج العربي ومسارعة الولايات المتحدة الاميركية لملء هذا الفراغ الاستراتيجي.

Nasheed al- Jabbar Poem for Abul-Qhasim Al-Shabi( An Analytic study)

Suzan Kamal Shamisul-Dean

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 19, Pages 365-388

These lines go deeply in analyzing the poem, and reveal its meaning and themes . Actually these lines will summarize the results of this research, and they are as follow:
The sensational poetry has a real effectonthegenerationsweather they are young orold. AbuQasemAlshbidiedwhile he was young even though his poems are very effective for his contemporaries and the current generation because of his romantic and rebellious poetry. The poem has three basicprinciplesmake people happy; the first oneisthe seriousand strongwill expresses life, the second isthe harder the conflict the more glorious the triumph, andthe third isto be patient against misfortunes. This poem really combines between the authenticityof the past time and the modernism, as a result of its being classical meter but has the soul of recent romanticism .
These results prove that the superiorityis the combining between contradictive things as life and death, hope and hopelessness, resistance and surrender. Despite of the classical view of this kind of poetry, it combines among all these contradictive ideas to be very effective, as the power of resurrection for died people .

Dream Vision in Chaucer's Poetry

QASSIM SALMAN SARHAN; Manaar kamil Sa; eed

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 19, Pages 9-30

Dream vision is an important and well _ known medieval narrative genre in poetry . The basic framework is that the confused narrator falls asleep and dreams , then his dream will be the main story. The dream often takes the form of allegory , enigmatic , and it needs a kind of interpretation on the part of the reader .After the troubled narrator is awakened , he determines to write his dream in a poem . 1
Dream vision poetry has an impressive and extensive image, which has been widely commented upon . Falling asleep, dreaming , dream vision , prophetic visitations and oracular guidance are familiar motifs from a number of widely known literary sources , like for example in the Bible , Greek and Latin classics , continuing in to the late antiquity and in to the medieval period . 2 Dream visions have important elements in common , firstly, all dream visions are written in the first person . The narrator becomes the dreamer and tells the story as his own experience . Sometimes , the dreamer becomes the protagonist of the dream fiction , and other times , he is only an observer as in Chaucer 's Book of the Duchess .3

Connotative Meanings of Metonymy and Simile in Imam Ali bin Abi Talib's Speech

Abdul-Hussein K.Reishaan; Ahsan H. A; Hani K. Al-Ebadi

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 19, Pages 31-51

Connotative meanings , particularly in figures of speech, are one of the semantic behaviours of linguistic structures. The current paper investigates some of these meanings in Islamic political discourse and their role in conveying the speaker's intended message to the audience. For many reasons, Imam Ali's speech, in one of his famous sermons, ash-shiqshiqiyyah sermon, has been selected as data of analysis. It is hypothesized here that Imam Ali's sermon (1) uses figures of speech to indirectly express his ideas and intended meanings, and (2) tends to connote such meanings to achieve more than one purpose particularly via metonymy and simile.