The Effects of Teaching Aids "maps , earth balls, and trips" in Teaching Geography in Pre-University stages.

Abd Ali Hasen Al-Khaffaf; Abdul Kadhim Al-Hilu; Zainab Hasan Habib

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 20, Pages 13-60

This research refers to the importance of using modern teaching aids by teachers in teaching geography in pre-university stages in order to help learners to understand and acquire scientific knowledge and skills . Because of the world has been witnessed a scientific progress , the educational organizations have to do many responsibilities towords the society in order to develop this society and to help people to be familiar with it (society). Therefore reserchers try to make use of reliable sources concerning with the subject of this research to write it .They discovered some results stating on providing the most developing teaching aids such as fixed and moved films, computer,radio and to direct (order) pupils with some activities outside the school, such as school incurions which help teacher to a chieve the aims of school approaches.

Citation of Al-Farraa, Ibn Malik, and Ibn Husham by the Words of Al-Imam Ali (p.b.u.h)

id Kareem Alwan Al-Hwezi; Sajad Abbas Hamzah

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 20, Pages 61-104

Grammariansdid not cite by thewordsofImam Aliexcept alittle.bothALfarraaandibn Malik havecitedby onewitnessthay weretheformerreferredto themwhen IbnHisham citedby three heisalreadysomeevidenceandcontinuedotherinanother. ThewitnessofALfarraa(AliBinAbu Talib)itseemsthatheusedtopronouncement andwritinginMeccasocietybeforeandafterIslamfor its fame,andthenreviseditin the ALmadeenaformixingwithitspeopleandkeepupwithmuchin the use ofnicknames. Thewitness ofIbn Malik we did notfoundathis predecessorsbutwitnessan argument forthe status ofibn Malikincolloquy scienceandbecausethe historical factssupportedhis healthand wefound ausefor theold andmodern, suitablewitnessin favor of it, andbuckingawitnessof IbnHishamnovelsrightwhichisnotfitto be a witnessand himselfdeduce oneevidenceofone oftheprovisions

The Effectof the Procedural Mind Criticism on Aderno

ama Mohammed Ibraheem; Rwaida Jasim Obed

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 20, Pages 105-126

Can be drawn from the study of the impact the philosophical project (Adorno) cash a through tracing the philosophical approach the cash has opened the philosophies of a broad prospect has gleaned Adorno for his critique of reason Alodhati of Marx's critique of societiesdominated by capitalism has made Adorno of the Marxist critique an important reference criticism of reason Alodhati As well as gleaned (Adorno) in his critique of the mind of Alodhati (Max Weber) in the concept of rationality has found that the heritage of the Enlightenment but the triumph of rationality Alodhatip with specific purposes. This form of rationality dig deep into the phrase of our social and cultural rights, including economic structures, laws, and bureaucratic management, and even the arts. Accordingly, there is no driving the growth of rationality Alodhatip - premise to achieve a tangible freedom and comprehensive but rather to find (an iron cage) which belongs to the Authority and also confirmed with (Heidegger) in his critique of what the technology, it represents in the eyes (Heidegger) the awarding of things, tools and equipment, and instruments. As these latter are only manifestations of the technology and what technology is in its consideration of metaphysics, any pattern of relationship between man and existence since the beginning of metaphysics Bank took a mean man turned only at the level of the existing has been omitted thought to exist, and focused on existing, and the fundamental difference between these AlmstweinAlontologiin is located can be confined, and measured, and subjected to study the existence: it can not be confined to, and measured, and represented as a single issue, and forget about this difference is ontological is the one who made the metaphysics thought forgotten because, no matter reached technical, they end up against the human existence

The Morphological Stages of Abu Skher City

Wahab Fahad Al-Yasiri; Latif Khudheir Latif Al-Anbaki

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 20, Pages 127-158

The research concentrated on the content of the study of the functional structure of Abu-Skher city and the stages which it went through. It is difficult to find special stages in the development of the city within this long period. The reason is that the lack of the constructional and planning heritage and what is left of public and private buildings as well as the lack in the documents and maps of the buildings during that period.
The many incidents which took place during that period had an effect on the social construct of the society which did not develop in a single pattern. The city witnessed periods of functional and architectural growth and prosperity and large spatial relations with large regions before Islam and then the Moguls invasion to Baghdad in 1258 A.D. which led to total destruction Abu Sekher went through long recession periods and this architectural heritage enabled us of investigating the planning of the city and its demography as well as their peoples activities. On top of which is the central location around which the lives of the people evolves. In addition the morphological stages which the city went through were studied tackling its plan and the internal and external structural units of the residents, and the streets as well as knowing the main factors that affected the growth of the city and its internal functional structure of the city in details. Reviewing the development of the city, it did not begin until the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century mainly because of the economic factor as well as the improvements in the road network in particular and the transportation in general. And also for the political stability and finally for the technological development. Studying the morphological stages of the city came to determine the boarders of the city after an analytical of the rise of the study, its form, contents, functions, people and uses of the land, where the city goes back to the reign of Nabukhudhnusar before 2500 years in spite of the fact that the contemporary urbanism goes back to the late seventies of the twentieth century.

The General Strategies for Developing Surface Water Resources in Al-Najaf Governature

Abdul-Sahib Naji Rasheed Al-Baghdadi; Seenaa Abed Taha Dhayf Al-edhari

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 20, Pages 159-196

Water is one of the environmental and natural resources, and the lifeblood of the President, without which life stops completely. It has become to provide adequate quantities of water both for drinking, or for other uses prominent problem in the world, due to the steady increase of the population, urbanization, and environmental degradation .
The study surface water resources Aldaimip of great importance in the study area (the province of Najaf), given the role of these resources is important for the overall development, therefore, draw any policy development, whether in the civilian side or agricultural or industrial, must be accompanied study of water resources available surface and study current and future requirements and neglect this aspect may lead to stalled development plans that did not lead to failure and it came this study to address the sustainable development of water resources of surface level Najaf, where it was found and through analysis that direction, where about appearance the problem of water shortage affects the water situation available in the region

The Principles of Discourse and its general Principles

Jameel Hilayil Neama; Ruqaya Hussein Shareef Al-Asady

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 20, Pages 197-218

أن ابرز ما توصلت أليه الخطابة منذ أدوارها الأولى هو:-
1- عرفت الخطابة بكونها فن الإقناع ومــن أدوارها الأولى إلــى جانب أهدافها الأخلاقية .
2- كانت الخطابة تحمل أهدافها إنسانية ربطتها بعلم الاجتماع فكانت الفن الوحيد الذي طالب بحقوق الإنسان من الطغاة فكانت حلقة الوصل بين المنطق واللغة وربطتها علاقات بعلم الاجتماع .
3- لكون الإنسان كائن اجتماعي فكانت تلبي حاجاته التي لم يصل إليها من خلال الفنون الأخرى .
4- ولقد كانت تمثل الوسيلة التي تسلح بها الأنبياء منذ نزول الإنسان إلى الأرض وصولا إلى الدين الإسلامي الذي عرف فيه الخطباء بكثرة الاقتباس من كتاب الله والتي ترتب عليها أثار ساهمت في تطور الخطابة فيما يعد في العصور اللاحقة .
5- تعدد وظائف الخطابة ومن هنا كانت لها وظائف مثل الدفاع عن المبادئ السامية واجتناب الرذائل وكانت قيمتها جلية من كونها سلاحا للمجتمعات
6- المساهمة في عوامل ساعدت على نشوئها مثل الحرية والديمقراطية ومن هنا تنوعت الخطب كل بحسب نوع الحاجة إليها فكانت المشاجرية للرد على الشكاوى والتثبيتية لأغراض المدح والذم والمشورية للذم والمنع .
7- للخطابة ثلاثة أركان وهي المخاطب والحاكم والنظارة ولأيمكن إهمال احد هذه الأركان لان الخطابة تكون بلا معنى عند فقدان احد هذه الأركان ومن هنا تطورت من خلال الفطرة والاساليب الخارجية والداخلية التي مثل مادة الخطابة ومن هنا ظهر تقسيم الخطب .
8- تحدد الخطابة مهام الخطيب لذا كان على الخطيب أن يحضر مقدمة الخطبة وموضوعها ، والخاتمة وهي ثلاثة مراحل تسهم في بناء الخطبة ولا تقل إحداهما أهمية عن الأخرى وهي :-
أ- أن على الخطيب أن يلتزم بمصادر الأدلة والأسلوب والإلقاء ومن هنا اتخذت طرق أخرى فارتبطت بالشعر والخيال والبلاغة ولكن الرابطة الأهم علاقتها بالمنطق فاستخدمت المنطق كآلـــة هو لتقويم الفن الخطابي .
ب- اتصال الخطابة بأغراض المنطق لها روابط مع الجدل كل من الموضوع والغاية والأهداف.
ج- تدعم الخطابة أراء الخطيب بالحجج البرهانية وكان ارسطو يستخدم أسلوب المناظرة لأول مرة في الخطابة.
9- ارتباط الخطابة بمختلف الحضارات فكان الرومان يستخدمون أسلوب النثر الفني في الخطابة أما اليونان فكانت خطبهم موسومة بالديمقراطية واستخدم جانب التحليل العقلي لا اللفظي وحسب .
10- ظهور الخطابة بشكل جديد عن طريق المدارس الفلسفية فمثلا المدرسة الرواقية التي جعلت الخطابة أحد أقسام المنطق ، أما الأبيقورية كانوا يستخدمون الخطابة في مجالس الشعب والمحاكم والسفسطائية كان لهم الأثر البالغ في تطورها إذ أنهم ربطوها بعلم الاجتماع واخذوا يتدارسوها وينشرونها في الدويلات المتفرقة آنذاك ، وما ساهم في ذلك خطبائه كل من انباذوقليسوجورجياسوبروتاغوراس فالأول من سن الخطب القضائية ، وجورجياس كان يرى أن الخطابة فن الكلام المقنع وكان مؤسس النثر الفني وبروتاغوراس كان من استخدم أسلوب المحاورة لغاية الوصول إلى البرهان
11- تعد الخطابة من الفنون التي لا تتحدد في حقبة زمنية معينه لذا تابعت تطورها في عصر صدر الإسلام والعصور اللاحقة ففي الإسلام تطورت الخطابة منذ عصر الجاهلية ووصولا إلى عصر صدر الإسلام كانت الخطابة فيها تمثل رسالة لتبليغ الناس إلى الخروج من الجهل إلى نور الإسلام وبعد ذلك تابعت تطورها في العصر الأموي والعباسي فازدهرت بسبب اهتمام التيارات المختلفة بها وأيضا عوامل أخرى مثل حركات الترجمة برعاية الدولة ولكنها في العصر الوسيط اضمحلت إذ أنها كانت سلاحا تستخدمه الكنائس المسيحية لخدمة أغراضها وهذا الأمر ساهم في اندثار الخطابة ووقوعها في الضياع ولكنها عادت إلى أوج الحضارة في العصر الحديث وكانت متألقة بسبب دعمها بالوسائل المنظورة مثل التلفاز والمذياع والوسائل الأخرى فكان أن اهتم بها الخطباء المعاصرين .
12- أتسم العصر الحديث بكثرة المهتمين بهذا الفن ولعل من مجمل هؤلاء الخطباء وأبرزهم عبد الرحمن بدوي ونقولا فياض وآخرين وبعد ذلك يتابع البحث تطور الخطابة من قبل النحويين مثل الجرجاني وابن جني ولـــعل ابرز أفكار الجرجاني هــي النظم والترتيب وإعجاز القران وأثره في أغناء الخطابة أما ابن جني فقد ربطها باللسانيات الذي يعرف في المنظور الحديث بعلم اللسان.
13- اتصال الخطابة باللغة لذا تأثرت بالاتجاه اللغوي اللساني المتمثل بالفلاسفة العرب والمسلمين منهم الفارابي وابن سينا وابن رشد ولعلهم لم يضيفوا أليها شيئا جديدا إلى تراث اليونان بل تابعوه وأضافوا بما يتناسب مع عقائدهم .
14- مثل فن الخطابة عند كل من سقراط وأفلاطون الأساسات التي بنى عليها ارسطو فيما بعد فن الخطابة ، ولعل ابرز أفكار سقراط هو الجدل أو ما يعرف بالديالكتيك وكانت أفكاره جدلية كلامية لذا كان يرفض ما جاء به السفسطائيين عن كونها لا تعمل لغاية بل لمنفعة أما أفلاطون تابع تطورها من خلال محاوراته المشهورة مثل جورجياسوفيدروس وربطها بالمنطق ويرى أنها نوع يؤيد القضية وكذلك ربطها بعلم الأخلاق ويرى أنها ذات واعز خلقي ولكنه اختلف مع السفسطائيين في بعض النقاط البسيطة حول الخطابة لذا كان محطا للنقد من قبل فلاسفة آخرين
وكذلك ربط وجود الخطابة بالمجتمع آذ عد الخطيب جزء مهما من أجزاء المجتمع لان الخطابة فن يحتاجه المعلمون في المدارس والقضاة في محاكمهم والوعاظ في أثر عبادتهم لذا عد الخطابة لبنة من لبنات مدينته الفاضلة .
15- أما الخطابة عند ارسطو فقد كانت بالصورة المثلى لأنه يعد أول فيلسوف قوم الخطابة كفن ولكن بأسلوب علمي وابرز أفكاره هي :-
أ- استخدم ارسطو أسلوب التحليل العلمي وبأسلوب ومظهر عقلاني عن طريق القيـــاس العلمي ( السيلوجيسم ).
ب- قام بترتيب أجزاء الخطابة وضل تقسيمه يتبع إلى يومنا هذا ومن هنا وصل إلى بعد لم يصل إليه سابقيه وهو أن ربط بين اللغة والخطابة .
ج- عرف ارسطو بتميزه عن أستاذه افلاطون مع انه تبعه في أكثر الأمور المتعلقة بالخطابة ألا انه تميز بتفرده برأيه .
د- ولكن مع ما سبق كان لأرسطو الأثر البالغ في تطور الفن الخطابي وله السبق في ربط الخطابة في كل العلوم والفنون الأخرى ، ولكن ما وصل ألينا حتى اليوم هو عن طريق ترجمة أجزاء قليلة لكتابه فن الخطابة فما الحال إذا ترجمت الأجزاء الباقية ولذا يعد المؤسس الحقيقي لفن الخطابة ويعد أكثر الفلاسفة استحقاقا لنيل هذا اللقب والحمد لله رب العالمين والصلاة والسلام على خير خلقه محمد وال بيته الطيبين الطاهرين

Shihabul-Din Bin Al-Attar Al-Dunaysari His Life and What is left of his Poetry Study and Aestheticism

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 20, Pages 219-294

Shihabul-Din Bin Al-Attar Al-Dunaysari is one of the poets of Egypt who lived in the eighth century after Al-Higra, he is a creative poet, who well capable in his art, with a great ability in expressing his feelings and senses. He started writing poetry early in his life what helped him to refine his pietism and literary genius is the artistic nature of Egypt as well as his knowing all what is related to the poetry collections of the Arab poets and memorizing their poetry, therefore he had a high ability in writing poetry which made people ask for his poetry and read it.
His poetry is an honest image reflecting the nature of life which he lived, and the specifications of his time which was full of political concerns and social disturbance. Therefore, I found that the poetry of this poet should be collected, studied and documented for its richness with images and full of meanings making it worthy of study.
The status of Shihabul-Din Bin Al-Attar Al-Dunaysari among the poets of his time lies in several points; he was one of the icons of thought and literature in the eighth century of Al-Hijra for the heritage he left which is evidence of his creativity and genius and out performing many of his colleagues, also, his poetry is regarded as an important historical document in which he recorded the facts of his time in a precise way that no event took place without describing it with poetry and his poetry was full of such events which gave him a social and historical value for this reason. His poetry is lines and short stanzas that do not exceed two or three lines and sometimes five. It is full of inspiring effective images and he wrote in most types of poetry that was known at his time; praise, love, description, satire, blame and mourning

The Effect of Nethche Philosophy on the Literary Text Aesthetics

Zaid Abbas Kareem; Hasan Mahdi Mustafa Jawad Al-Khafaji

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 20, Pages 295-324

I've been playing mental turnaround for the world of modernity leading role in the structure of the concept and the nature of the work, whether art Cecchelaa theatrically or text morally, in the starting thinking philosophically liberal looking for a new, and address all the challenges and weaves values modernist compatible and ideological era, through the march - modernity, what Postmodernism, down to the modern post-modernity, suggesting understood the philosophical shift mental and search in entity core values, and clear impact of the philosopher (Friedrich Nietzsche) in the heart of these values, as well as the philosophy of contemporary art in all schools and trends that were realistic or classic modern or romantic and also Albornasah and expressive and absurd and others, the search in the aesthetics of the literary text and properties held by the literary text contemporary in all trends, because this text is able to influence the public, and raise their emotions, the goal is to achieve a fun and thrill in its drafting, so calls in search of Aesthetics literary text that was poetry or prose or novel or short story, frame aesthetic which results in the context of literary schools of contemporary and which did not seek field to mention all of these schools, and we went in our search to the most famous, in the direction of a pattern literary particular objective or subjective, what matters framework year for this text, and thereunder of different components, such as words and structures, images and symbols and nods and others that are psychological artist and his sense of growing force in clarifying this concept, embodied in the symbol of human excellence philosophy lute eternal has considered philosopher (Nietzsche) important art is that human Next Through this genius (Superman), which made him in most schools and contemporary trends, for example, their flags .

The Camels in the Assimilation Perspective in Nahjul Al-Balagha

Ali Maturi

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 20, Pages 325-348

تعد الطبيعة( الصامتة-والصائتة) إحدي أهم عناصر التصوير الأدبي،فالتصوير الأدبي هوشكليبرز رؤية الأديب الخاصة تجاه الوجود، ويعمل علي تخصيبها كما أنّه يمكنه من استبطان التجارب الحياتية، ويمنحه القدرة علي استكناه المعاني استكناهاً عميقاً، مما يضفي علي إبداعه نوعاً من الخصوصية والتفرد. فالأديب الذي يستمد رموزه من الطبيعة، يخلع عليها من عواطفه ويصبغها من ذاته ما يجعلها تنفث إشعاعات وتموجات تضج بالإيحاءات والدلالات. فالأديب لاينظر إلي الطبيعة علي أنّها مجرد شيء مادي منفصلاً عنه وإنّما يراها امتداداً لكيانه فالإستعانة بالطبيعة للتعبير عن المعاني العميقة التي تجول في خاطر الأديب تحتم علي الخطيب أو الأديب أن يلبسها ثوب التشبيه، فالتشبيه يقوم بتصوير خلجات النفس التي لا تستطيع اللغة الاعتيادية الإفصاح عنها ، إذ يقربها من الأذهان ثم تنعكس دلالتها علي المتلقي فيتفاعل معها ومع الدلالة الكامنة فيها. فالمشابهة عملية تعبيرية تفقد طرفي التشبيه هويتهما الواقعية لتقيم على انقاضهما هوية جديدة هي الحاصل الدلالي الذي تسرب الى ذهننا جراء هذه العملية. فالتشبيه هو فن من الفنون الكلامية التي تشكل في البيان العربي عنصرا أساسيا من عناصر الإبداع قي عملية التركيب الجملي- فنجد إن المعنى القصدي للمبدع داخل النتاج لا يتم إلا به.

Hydro Geographic Analysis of the reality of the Waters in Khanaqeen city and the Capability of Its Investment

Alyaa Hussein Salman

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 20, Pages 349-388

Cares Search analysis of water resources in the city of KhanaqinTq northeastern Diyala province in Iraq , considering that this resource is of great significance through relied upon for doing various economic processes and process for humans , as Find a researcher that surface water has a great role to use to meet the water needs in the study area , but consumed by the population was a significant increase , as well as identifying quantities by the upstream countries , which requires us to find a replacement for the dam needs water , and this can only by resorting to the water stored in the ground , so it has been the trend towards Investment of this water by taking samples from a variety of wells and multiple regions of the study area in order to compare the criteria adopted , the researcher has come through it to the need to rely on being good with the validity of the use of agricultural , industrial and trade in the study area .

Written Correspondence between Ali And Mu'awiya in Explaining Nahjul- Balagha by Ibn Abi Hadeed- Stylistic Artistic Comparison

Aqeel Jasim Dahash

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 20, Pages 389-432

Remember our history and correspondence crucial correspondence between Ali and Muawiya reflect the position of each of the political events that took place in the Islamic nation that historical era and style in the management of the conflict between the two, which were written in a powerful and influential graphic style.
The researcher tried to shed light on aspects of the stylistic and technical aspects of the texts of those correspondence , and crystallized in five sections , I dealt with the study methods ( command , forbidding , question , section , indefinite ) , addressing the second aspect of synthetic texts correspondence of ( introduction, connectivity , infrastructure nominal , the actual structure ) , and singled out the third study the patterns of the technical picture ( simile , metaphor , antithesis ) , while the fourth singled devising connotations tenses , while the fifth has dealt with the impact of the Koran in the texts of correspondence in terms of ( words , compositions , pictures). The researcher adopted the analytical approach to clarify the implications of the texts and the disclosure of the purpose of the speaker and the statement of the purposes of speech .
The researcher found the results of several Ibzha that what distinguishes those correspondences that they both needed the other to see him about the events and situations witnessed by the nation in that era, Kalmoagaf of the Caliphate and caliphs former and the murder of Caliph Uthman and its aftermath as well as the stance of the military conflict between the two teams, also saw the correspondence the presence of intertextuality with pictures of the Koran, which is effectively a reflection of the need for technical or graphic on the destination of preaching or indicative of a very semantic is included in some Islamic concepts which necessitated the context of the speech and the subject almkatebh.

Treatment Tourism Elements in al-Najaf Al- Ashraf Governorate

Asa; ad Saleem Lahmood

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 20, Pages 433-458

The planning for tourism development at least as important as planning for the rest of the economic activity , and so what 's of great importance to tourism in regional development in terms of economic and social development , environmental and reflected positive effects on the region's development and prosperity
And take tourism multiple forms , and these forms of medical tourism , which has a role in attracting capital that can be invested in the construction of tourism projects , and in which they can get jobs to run , who have the capacity and efficiency at work , and despite the exposure of tourist activity in Iraq to economic constraints the major security but political will and material resources to pay to go to the adoption of tourism an important tributary of the tributaries of the economy and perhaps the decision to establish the Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities is evidence of this trend and interest after it was a small body in one of the ministries earlier
Given the importance of tourism to the national economy and the role of a role in the development of integrated by increasing the balance of the state of the foreign exchange and improve the balance of payments deficit Najaf province characterized Brouage tourist activity religious goal of religious shrines that spread dramatically in the province and visited by millions of Visitors Arabs and Muslims from all over the world, but rely solely on this tourist activity Does not achieve economic integration is required , especially as the province of Najaf has potential natural and human tourist ore has not been invested in tourism , which requires the development of plans and scientific studies that help in the formulation of economic policies of the state in the coming years . to ensure the development of eco-tourism and tourism attractions archaeological and cultural tourism festivals .

Pragmatic Failurein Iraqi EFL Contexts

Fareed H. Al-Hindawi; Ahmed S. Mubarak; Sahira M. Salman

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 20, Pages 11-48

This study investigates Iraqi EFL students' pragmatic performance at all their educational levels in an attempt to identify the potential pragmatic failure they commit when using English. The study hypothesizes that (1) the students under study commit pragmatic failure whether pragmalinguistically or sociopragmatically at all levels, and (2) their teachers allow for such a kind of pragmatic failure as long as students produce well-formed sentences. To achieve the aim of the study and test its hypotheses, the sample of the study is subjected to a questionnaire which consists of twenty situations, each of which includes four well-formed utterances but only one of them is pragmatically appropriate to the situations in which they occur. The sample of the study consists of various levels of students and teachers to check the results on various levels. The subjects are first-year and fourth-year university EFL students and university EFL teachers of various academic titles, degrees and specializations all from the Department of English, College of Education for Human Sciences.
The study verifies the hypotheses of the study and concludes that Iraqi EFL learners’ pragmatic performance is generally poor since the average pragmatic success they recorded amounts to only 55.75%. Years of study do not seem to satisfactorily develop the pragmatic performance of the Learners since the difference in this regard between the first-year students and their PhD teacher is only 17.21%.
The study falls in six main sections: Section One presents the problem, aim and hypotheses. Section Two elaborates on the notion of "pragmatic failure" along with its types. Section Three explains the reasons of pragmatic failures and Section Four discusses some ways of overcoming such failures. Section Five reviews the methods of data collection and analysis. Section Six puts forward the main conclusions of the study.

The Effect of Using Dictionary in Teaching Pronunciation

Abdul-Hussein KadhimReishaan; Wiaam Abdul- Wahab T. Al-Bayati

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 20, Pages 49-78

Conventionally, pronunciation is taught by teachers who explain the articulation, read sounds aloud while students listen carefully to the teacher, repeat after him, and then may, though not always, listen to some recordings. This implies that the whole process is based on listening and speaking; writing and reading is just accidental for the sake of exams.
Teaching students how to use dictionary for pronunciation is believed to be an extension in developing skills to include reading and writing in both ordinary spelling and transcription. Accordingly, it is hypothesized that the use of dictionary helps students master a better English pronunciation.To prove this hypothesis, the present study has developed a theoretical and a practical part. In the practical one, an experiment has been designed and implemented on first year students/ Department of English Language/ College of Arts/ University of Kufa during the academic year 2006-2007.The study then has reached at several conclusions that validate the hypothesis and then suggested some recommendation

Myth in C.S.Leiws’sPrince Caspian: The Return to Narnia

BasimNeshmyJeloud; Daikh; Hameed Mani

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 20, Pages 79-98

Prince Caspian: The Return to Narniais part of C.S.Lewis’s mythical world in the Chronicles of Narnia (1950-1954).Lewis considers myth as a fundamental resource for his writings whether they are theological or literary ones. His adherence to myth comes from his belief in the validity of myth, even pagan one, to trace the development of human religious and imaginative thinking. Myth for Lewis, as for his other friends in the Inklings, is the primitive type of religion which paves the way to the present religions.In this story, Lewis addresses, through the world of Narnia, the skeptics in their faith who are obsessed by love of power and authority as he silencesthe rivers and trees, and kills off most of the talking beings. Lewis draws on his real attitudes towards peoples’ inclinations to materialistic way of life who forget their belief and commitment towards religion.
This paper is part of an M.A. thesis entitled “The Use of Myth in C.S.Lewis’sThe Chronicles of Narnia” prepared at the University of Al-Qadisiya, College of Education, Department of English.
Keywords: myth, Narnia, Inkling, Caspian and Aslan