Collocation Concept An Explanative Method

Akeel A. AlzahraALkhakany; InasNuman Mahdi

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 21, Pages 11-44

Collocation is one of the categories of thecontext theory in the modern and contemporary semantics; the theoristsbelieve that the semantic units cannot be described or defined without considering the surrounding units. From this theory, the concept of ( collocation) had developed; it means the tendency of terms towards being connected with certain terms. This concept is a result of the efforts of the previous generations during long centuries; it is not a sudden movement of creation.
The Arab linguists, grammarians and interpreters observed, since the early time, the tendency of terms towards being connected with certain terms. So collocation one of bases on which their theories of meaning depended. The western linguists and grammarians had quoted it from the Arab where their theoretical and applied contributions indicate their realizing of this concept. Yet they did follow it as a permanent method in their linguistic and Qura`nic studies; this could be due to the different cognitive tools they adopted in their studies. Yet we cannot deny the favor of the modern linguists in presenting this concept as an a scientific theory. The research founds that the cognitive roots of collocation in the interpretation emerged from the method of (interpretation Qur`an by Qur`an) which is of the most ancient methods of interpretation. In the modern age, it could be a kind of the ( linguistic interpretation). The feature of this method defines the term significance and value in two contexts :- the first could be the minor context; the first is to connect with certain terms on the level of one or two verses by adopting the comparing method, and the second is to follow the use of the Qura`nic term on the level of the whole Qura`nic text, without excepting any position, and the connected terms via deducing and comparing the under study text.

Ottoman strategy in North Africa in the sixteenth century

Jassim Mohammed Shatub

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 21, Pages 45-94

. The researcher had taken up in this study the Ottoman strategy in north Africa in sixteenth century from Morocco to Algeria and Tunis to Serit Gulf , this area is dominating on eastern Mediterranean see which was named Cruisers share , and it faced Italy ,France and Spain, was preferred with its economic activity because its connection with the back large desert Africa, and connected with Europe trance Mediterranean see in another side .This area had connected with economic and political European developments in the beginning of modern periods , because its geographical nearness, first , and it became sanctuary of the fugitive Muslims and Jews from Spain and Portugal, whereof became it Altruistic Muslim focus of attentions, practically Barbarossa's Family who were due in diligence and activity and insistence to attach this area with Strategic of Ottoman Empire which became universality state in sixteenth century , and its forces were fighting in three continent in the same time. The Ottomans directed to this area after Barbarossa Family had surmount the obstacles, and they had imposed them domination and them authority and military supremacy, and the western part of Mediterranean see became ones of territories which the Ottomans had from it advanced to result upon military and political developments in the western part of Europe during sixteenth century, particularly Sultan Suleiman the first who had appreciated Barbarossa Family's efforts, then he incorporated them efforts within his state, this incorporation was produced active dynamic strategy , not in north Africa only ,but on all the world in that time .

Icon in the Caricature Poetic Text Semiology for the Abbasid era Poets.

Aty Obyyat; Lila Chamshidy; GhanyIrawanyZadh

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 21, Pages 95-118

The most important areas through which we can enter to the semiology area and subsequently to icons is the formed Poetic Text based on a caricaturing (cartoon) structure. In this descriptive, verbal structures, the signs which create a subjective image is called subjective images icon which are created by the perception system and the metaphorical relationship between the real image and Imaginative images.
This paper investigated poetic caricaturing semiology in which the relationship between signifier and signified was based on analogy and metaphor and in that language, it provide them in a subjective poetic caricature, icon as a subset of semiology images caricaturing complete its mission through perception structures of language. This paper also investigates the most important forms of icon in caricaturing poetry in the singular and combined images and in the kind of simile, metaphor and irony in order to find that most text which we called them "a mere poetry" are complex text.Including caricaturing poetry, in which the richness of icons refers to the richness of its dealer aspects in providing beautiful images in poetry of the Abbasid period poets; however,they have adopted the new kind of language which attempt to get out of the norms (styles) to create a common beautiful caricaturing pictures.
Keyword:"semiology", "Icon ", "Caricaturing text ", " Poet "," Abbasid era ".

Noah in AdibKamaludin poems


Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 21, Pages 119-138

The motif is rooted in Arabic rhetoric. we can see roots of this
new method that enters to literature and human science in the old Arabic rhetoric. Motif in literature means the main idea or subject that repeats and it occurs in AdibKamaledin poems. AdibKamaledin is a contemporary Iraqi poet who lives in Australia now. He still states his emotions through poems and he is known as Hourofi ( particle) poet because he has a deep thought in particle. Noah's motif in AdibKamaledin poems, has various implications. The poet illustrates the character of this honorable prophet and represents the violence through using religious symbols and Noah's character. I've done this study of repeating Noah's motif and his campaigns stated by the poet. We can also see that the poet's campaign by using these motif. The purpose of tis study is stating the Noah's efforts and that's done by Quran inter-texuality to build the intended motif of the poet. I'll do this study by using descriptive method and I'll explain the reasons of poet tendencies toward these motifs and we will see that the poet used motif as his safe shelter.
Key words: Motif, Noah, AdibKamaledin, Contemporary Arabic poem.

Predicative Attributive for Al- shareef Al- Radhi- A Study in the Qura`nic and Prophetic Miracles

arajy; SattarJabur al-A

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 21, Pages 139-184

يعد الشريف الرضي شخصية علمية بارزة في عصره الذي تميز بنهضة علمية وزخر بوجود عمالقة كبار من المفكرين والعلماء في مختلف العلوم لاسيما منها الانسانية والدينية. وهو شخصية موسوعية في معارفها فهو الى جانب كونه من كبار الشعراء، كانت له انجازات مهمة في علوم الفقه والحديث والتفسير والكلام وفنون العربية وبلاغتها. ويعد كتاباه (مجازات القرآن) و( المجازات النبوية) من العلامات الفارقة في منجزه العلمي؛ لأنه عالج فيهما عملية الكشف عن المعاني والدلالات الحقيقية للنص القرآني والنبوي في تضمنهما لأسس العقيدة ومنظومة التشريع، وقد وقف البحث عند قضية كان لها موقعها وأهميتها وحضورها في هذين الكتابين؛ ألا وهي تأويل الصفات الخبرية. التي هي أحد المطالب الاساسية في بحث الصفات الإلهية، ومن ثم فهي حاضرة بوضوح في مبدأ التوحيد الذي هو الأصل العقائدي المتفق عليه بين جميع المسلمين بل جميع الموحدين، وربما يمكن تلمس خطورتها عندما نكتشف انها تحولت في مرحلة طويلة زمنيا وعند اتجاهات عديدة الى معيار للايمان او الكفر بحسب الموقف من التعامل مع ظواهر النصوص التي تتضمنها، وقد كانت الاتجاهات والمواقف الرئيسية هنا اربعة وهي:
1. الاخذ بظواهر النصوص وإثبات الصفات الخبرية لله تعالى.
2. الاخذ بالظواهر واثبات الصـــــــــفات الخبرية ولكن من دون بيان لكيفية هذه
3. التوقف وتفويض الامر الى الله تعالى وعدم الخوض في بيان المراد من هذه الصفات.
4. التأويل ونقل المعنى من الدلالة الظاهرية للالفاظ المتضمنة لهذه النصوص الى حقيقة المعنى المراد منها وفق قواعد العقل وتحت معيارية النص الديني القرآني والنبوي.
وهذا الاتجاه الرابع هو الذي تابعه الشريف الرضي والتزم به انطلاقا من مبدأ التنزيه المطلق لله تعالى عن كل ما يشبهه بشيئ من خلقه، أو ينسب إليه النقص والتركيب او يجسمه. وهكذا وجدنا في كتابيه يحكم بأن كل النصوص التي وردت ناسبة لله تعالى هذه الصفات الخبرية ؛ هي استعمالات مجازية واستعارات والتشبيهات لايمكن مطلقا أخذها على ظاهرها ولابد من تأويلها، وهذا ماتوجه إليه مستعينا بأدوات النص والعقل واللغة العربية وفنونها وما اختزنته من طاقات تعبيرية، ليقدم لنا اطروحة فذة في التعامل مع النص الديني؛ تأويلا وتفسيرا وتحليلا للوصول الى المراد الحقيقي منه، وهكذا توزعت النصوص المتضمنة للصفات الخبرية في الكتابين على ثلاثة أصناف رئيسية تصدى البحث لها في ثلاثة مطالب كالآتي:
1. النصوص الموهمة للجهة كالاحاطة والقرب والمعية والحلول والعلو..الخ.
2. النصوص الموهمة للتركيب والتجسيم كالعين واليد والساق والجنب والروح والنفس.
3. النصوص الموهمة للنقص والتغيير والتشبيه كالحركة والانتقال والمجيئ والحب والبغض والمكر والتعجب والاستهزاء..الخ.
واجتهد الباحث في ان يخصص مطلبا رابعا عالج فيه موقف الشريف الرضي من رؤية الباري تعالى، وهذا الفصل للموضوع ارتبط بسعة البحث فيه وكونه ذا صلة بالاصناف الثلاثة السابق ذكرها مجتمعة، وقد كشف البحث عن جملة من النتائج كان أهمها:
1. خطورة وحساسية موضوع الصفات الخبرية.
2. تعدد الاتجاهات والمواقف منها واخذ الشريف الرضي بمنهج التأويل.
3. اتخذ الشريف الرضي مبدأ التنزيه المطلق للباري تعالى معيارا ومحددا اساسيا لمسار معالجته لهذه النصوص.
4. أول الشريف الرضي جميع النصوص التي اختارها نماذج لبحثه في الكتابين وفق مقاييس النص الديني والعقل واللغة.
5. كشف البحث عن قابلية كلامية عند الشريف الرضي، إذ لم يكتف بالتحليل اللغوي والبلاغي للنصوص وانما وضع معايير وقواعد تحدد عملية فهمها.
6. تمتع الشريف باسلوب بياني عال انعكس على اسلوبه التعبيري وتحليله للنصوص وأضفى ذلك على بحثه ما ابعده عن الجفاف التعبيري والاسلوب المنطقي للمتكلمين.
7. اختط الرضي بذلك لنفسه منهجا كلاميا مميزا ومتفردا احتل مساحة هامة ضمن البحث الكلامي.
وفي الختام ارجو ان اكون وفقت في ابراز هذا الوجه المشرق لشخصية موضوع البحث والكتابين الهامين والمعالجات المتفردة للشريف الرضي انه تعالى سميع مجيب

The project of Hoor-Laval 1935 and its effect on the British policy( A study in the international relation)

Mohammed Salih Al- Ziady

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 21, Pages 185-226

Prior to the eruption of the Second World War, a new international build-up had been growing. It consisted of the bipolar group of Germany, Italy and Japan on the one hand, and Britain and France and the USA later. Italy was allied with France and Britain in the Striza Front because of its interests in Austria. Britain as well as France’s stand concerning the Abyssinian issue caused Italy to side with Germany and leave the Striza Front 1936 and sign a treaty with Germany. Britain’s failing position towards the Italian attack against Abyssinia was a turning point that changed the blocks among the powerful countries at the time. Britain’s superficial commitment to the League of Nations, collective security and peace stemmed from its interests, so the British government sought to please Italy by giving up Abyssinia. At the same time, the British concluded a maritime agreement with Germany and the Munch Conference. All these efforts were in vain to turn the upcoming war towards the Soviet Union and the East. This led to the eruption of the Second World War in 1939.

Women Aesthetic values in the poetry of the pre-Islamic third Cteogary.

Yasir Ali Abd Al-khalidy; Fatima Hameed Al- Temimy

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 21, Pages 227-254

Women's presence was felt in the third class poets ignorant; they ate each according to what he sees as the aesthetic values, and those values were distributed between sensuality and moral. The nature of the search warrant has been divided on what seemed to them from the aesthetic features, attached to each course created by the beauty of the face, eyes, hair, mouth, and others. Others have attached Bgeleta and her clothes and fragrance including added from aesthetic values

Hagiographic Recordes for Martyr Mohammed Baqir Al-Sadr

Mohsen Abdul-Zahra; Thaer Al-Moussawi

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 21, Pages 255-282

In the name of God the Merciful Praise be to Allah and peace and blessings of God's creation envoy Ashraf mercy to the worlds Abi al-Qasim Muhammad, The God of the good and virtuous Almentajabin ..
And yet ...
It is known that school Ahl al-Bayt (peace be upon them) produced figures scientific level of the building and the application, influenced Islamic knowledge as characterized by its rooting in Gnostic Product legitimate, and this is what we observe clearly in the school front, considering that the door of ijtihad open, which expands the horizon of knowledge they have, the prospect wide therefore note the depth of production whenever rooted research and deepened, and the impact of the completed knowledge in this school, and this is what we find clearly in El Shaheed Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr, which was characterized by his school on the comprehensiveness of all the people of Islamic knowledge and Alansanah.fahi multiple in all aspects of life, and not limited to the jurisdiction science Sharia jurisprudence and assets only, despite the fact that this area was wider than his achievements and innovations Alalmah.vachtmmelt his school studies in urisprudence, and jurisprudence, and talk, and men, and logic, and philosophy, and beliefs and science Quranic , economics, and history, and the law, and fiscal policy and banking, and education curricula and seminary education, and courses of action and political systems of Islamic rule, and other aspects of human knowledge and various Muslim .. and this may come as a result of totalitarianism what was enjoyed by our imam of the martyr mentality encyclopedic large, can be considered slip, enjoyed by the history of science and scientists between the era and the last, and that constitute each one of them on top of each era historic turning point in directing the movement of a new science and knowledge and Trashidha.vkadd was (may Allah have mercy on him) verse in the scientific genius, and the breadth of the horizon, and Alvzh.o genius has shone since his childhood, and the beginning of his life, and Thsalih scientific, as witnessed by all of the contact him directly, or met him through his works and study its research value, where cohesion has curriculum with the application, and to prove that we have chosen the authentication Men, which is the basis for the revision of the junior guide legitimate, and that's where Mr. Shahid has not singled out in search independent of these endorsements, Vtabanaha in written evidentiary, and we found that there is cohesion in Gnostic director inferential, Accordingly, the problem of the search is concentrated in demonstrating this major Atrdt when Mr. martyr, we have chosen a set of books and doctrinal fundamentalism evidentiary statement for its buildings in the men's authentication and applications in the books evidentiary him. The distribution of research on the demands of the four, namely.

Evaluating the use of contemporary Scientific Techniques in the Geographic Research- A comparative study.

Muthana Phadil Al- Waily; MaraimSahiIbraheem; KifahDakhilObai

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 21, Pages 283-314

The use of methods of data collection and information analysis and interpretation to achieve accurate results sophisticated and keep up with the evolution of scientific and technical knowledge of the geographical transfer from the description to the application. The longer these methods are the most appropriate tool in the study of geographical phenomena, as between the place and the data related to it in digital form can be inferred from the way the information is more accurate. Due to the existence of this vast amount of data and information there was an urgent need to save this data processing and analysis to get to the minute information from them. And it was necessary to use techniques and modern methods in completing the geographical research, hence the urgent need to indicate the role of pedagogy, whether geographical or students in the use of these techniques in the development of geographical research. The researchers adopted in determining the way the questionnaire form .. and the lack of wading Bhecma research areas for a variety of reasons has led and is the last in a generally weak levels, but even at the level of interest in controling questionnaire, so we had to write about such topics…So this came to our research shows the extent of the use of these techniques by faculty, students and graphically simplified, in an attempt to detect the most important of these gaps and enable researchers in the future to be addressed .

Measurement of the Function and figures from the approach centralized around the activity and its relation with the

AzeezHasenJasim; Ethar Abdul-Muhsen

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 21, Pages 315-346

These thinking operations of the individual that he does in the educational situations or in his daily interaction contribute in individual mental development and extending his mental activities and senses. The importance of the research stems from the above facts.
The research aims at:
To achieve the aims of the research, the researcher applied the test of thinking manners after extracting its validity and reliability and the distinct power of its items and testing the cognition ability that has been prepared by Al- kubaisi after extracting its validity and reliability on a sample (150) student of both sexes. They have been chosen according class, stage, and random method of equal distribution from four colleges, two scientific colleges and the other two are humanitarian of Al-Mustansyria University.
After treating the statistical data by using Te-test of one sample and the Te- test of two independent samples and Pearson coefficient.
The research reached the following results:
In general, student of university have all of thinking methods and according to the sex and specialist. All of bonding coefficients values between the knowing power and thinking methods are not function, and if function, it are poor in general and according to the sex and specialist.
It is for (females).
Implementing the aspects associated with this research, the researcher concluded the following recommendations:
Teachers must may attention to the individual differences of university students in manner of thinking.Inserting the university courses items which cultivate the manners of thinking through creating a state of exam activity which allow them to think.
The researcher suggested the following too:
Making studies that deal with manner of thinking in other different unstudied cognition

The Scientific Role of Al- Tartooshy520A.H/ 1121A.D in the philosophy of Construction and Policy via Siraj al- Milook.

Mohammed Aid Mani; a Al- Hussainy

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 21, Pages 347-378

Tartushi is considered one of the pioneers of intellectual renaissance in the fifth century who influenced the Islamic intellectual and scientific output, including his achievements at the level of philosophy and jurisprudence and the Islamic faith
Especially when it went in to his demand for scientific correct path, the United States and the policy of the rulers towards our sons of the people, summed up in his book ((suraj al molok)) which contained the wisdom, advice and account for each governor is trying to reform his country And to seek justice and reform the overall trends in the state, because this is a reform of the state and the people will lead to prosperity and progress and prosperity.
In fact, we should not forget the role of scientific of ((Trtoshi)) this role, which was started by his hometown (Tortosa) and then going to the (Zaragoza) and then to the Orient to (Mecca) and (Iraq) and (Sham) and (Egypt), the information gained from many during his meeting with a large number of scientists and to benefit from their research and experiences in the field of philosophy and religion.
Has been able to put many books in doctrine and messages in building civilizations and the policy of the rulers has reached us of his works for more than thirteen books in the doctrines and debates and Conditions Like a book (al asrar al kabeer) and book (siraj al molok) and (aklak al rasol) and (al hawadeth and bedaa) and other literature .

The QuranicTextuality in ( Bilad Ma bain Al- Nahrain) for ahmed Mutter

Ali Abdul- Rahman Fatah

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 21, Pages 379-404

This research is concerned with the Impact of The Holy Quran text on Ahmad Matar’s poem The Country betweentwo throat slaughters . It is clear that these Quranic texts have clear impacts on this poem concerning certain “terms, meanings, expressions, images, tales among others. The researcher tries to reveal such aspects in this poem and the fact that those various Quranic texts , have always great impact on Islamic nations, and Arabic literature in the ancient and recent time. The impact of the Holy Quran on Mater’s poem is clear in using textual quotations, rhymes as well as in taking benefit from the Quranic tales , images, meanings and other stylistic elements.

Natural Reservations and their effects on Protecting the biologic Variety in the Marsh Area.

Abbas Abdul-Hussain Khudair

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 21, Pages 405-422

ان التدهور الذي زادت حدته خلال الآونة الأخيرة يعد من أخطر المشكلات البيئية التي صنعها الإنسان نتيجة لتعامله غير العقلانيمع بيئته وخاصة البيئات التي تتسم بنظم بيئية هشة ، تتميز بتوازن بيئي سريع العطب ، يمكن ان يختل تحت تأثير سوء الإدارة والاستغلال غير الرشيد للموارد الطبيعية من نبات طبيعي ومياه وتربة ، أن هذا الاختلال في التوازن البيئي الطبيعي يؤدي الى التدهور .
ومما لاشك فيه ان الاهوار لم تعد قادرة على تجديد مواردها الطبيعية واعادة التوازن للبيئة وللطبيعة عافيتها بعد تعدد العوامل والاسباب التي أدت الى حدوث خلل في التوازن البيئي وزيادة حدة التدهور البايولوجي وانقراض العديد من الكائنات الحية بمختلف انواعها ، ويشكل اقليم الاهوار بيئة طبيعية جغرافية فريدة بما تحتويه من موارد نباتية وحيوانية مختلفة يمكن ان تستثمر بطرق مختلفة وهي بحد ذاتها تشكل دعامة اقتصادية وطبيعية إذا ما تم الاستغلال الامثل لمثل هذه البيئات بكل جوانبها فانهاوبلاشك تشكل انعطافه جديدة من نوعها لما تحتوي عليه من مميزات وصفات بيئية متنوعة ، ولهذا كله تعتبر منطقة الاهوار من المواقع التي تمتلك مقومات متنوعة طبيعية واقتصادية وثقافية وحضارية كما تمتلك هذه المنطقة بعداً تاريخياً وارثاً حضارياً موغلاً في القدم .
تعرضت منطقة الاهوار لأعمال التجفيف التي شكلت اكبر كارثة بيئية وغيرت معالم البيئة الطبيعية والتي كان لها تأثير كبير على قدرة الأنظمة البيئية في تحقيق التوازن البيئي والاخلال بالتنوع الحيوي , كذلك أدت الى ظهور عدد من المشاكل البيئية الناتجة عن قلة الموارد المائية وارتفاع معدلات التلوث والتملح فيها بسبب النشاط البشري والاقتصادي .
وللمحافظة قدر الامكان على التنوع الحيوي لابد من اتباع طرق للحد من هذا الاستنزاف الحاد للموارد الطبيعية ، وتعد المحميات الطبيعية محاولة للمحافظة على البيئة الطبيعية والتنوع الاحيائي ، وذلك من خلال تحديد بعض المساحات من اراضي الاهوار لحمايتها وتطوير خصائصها لاستخدامها كمحمية طبيعية وعلى ضوء ذلك يمكن تحديد المشكلة بالتساؤل التالي :
ما مدى مساهمة المحميات الطبيعية في حماية وصيانة البيئة والمحافظة على التنوع الاحيائي في منطقة الاهوار؟

Training requirements necessary for the teachers of the Arabic language from their point of view

ASMaa Aziz Abdul Kareem; IqbalK azim Hpetr

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 21, Pages 423-456

The research aims to find out the current training requirements necessary for the teachers of the Arabic language and its parameters from their point of view, has sample consisted of( 198) teachers from public schools in the Middle Euphrates region, for the primary stage. It was the application of a questionnaire prepared for the measurement of training needs is composed of( 47) items distributed on six areas: field (lesson planning, presentation skills lesson, teaching methods, the Specialist, educational, behavioral, and Calendar) and after analyzing the data necessary indicated the search results that teachers have the training needs of high reaching the weighted average year (4.11) higher than the central premise and adult (3), on the other hand, the results showed a lack of statistically significant differences in the needs of teachers training due to the variable sex and years of experience, and the presence of significant differences statistically attributable to qualified scientific. This is in light of these results has been proposed a number of recommendations was the most important: the design of training programs for teachers of the Arabic language and its parameters include the training needs in the areas of the questionnaire, the use of modern techniques in training, and the need to involve teachers in the identification of training needs required in the field of education and teaching stratasegies

The American Interference in Dominican in 1965 and the International Attitude.

Abdulla Muslim ShatubAl-Badry

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 21, Pages 457-482

Dominican Republic has suffered from U.S. control for many years , including the control of their companies to private capital in the Dominican , where these companies generate money on the long- owners of capital , while Dominican people are suffering from severe deprivation.
Also find U.S. intervention in the internal affairs and make a kind of influence political decision for the people of the Dominican as well as focused loyalists .
Things have been changed with beginning year of 1963 when he took office Juan Bosch , who his policy was to violence and war with the United States and thus caused the loss of many interests and made a real threat againstit. Then came another blow to those U.S. interests and that the fall of the political system, the pro -American in the Dominican , which they rely on it too much.
All those conditions have been pushed the United States into direct military intervention in April of 1965.