Land Transportation Status Najaf

Mohammed Jawad Abbas SHabaa

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 6, Pages 201-228

Transportation and ways system is considered as one of the cities elements the system and it regional connection contributed in supporting the city efficiency and performance of its jobs and satisfied the movement facility and fluency and connected the city with its regions and the regions within each other in addition it represented one of the elements to connect the settlements and the other system Najaf is just like the other cities where the land uses distributed between the ancient and the modern and to arrange the contemporary man needs hence it become very decessary to study the ways system and the extent of its harmony withe present and future mans needs.
The problem of transportation in najaf in increased offer spring 2003 with the arrival of the great number of cars and security decline which result in following precautionary measures by closing roads, installing blocks and chick point and this, in its turn, led to traffic jam, traffic accedentegdelaying and increasing pollution for the treatment, the planning is working together with the technical resolution in solving this problem, the precautionary measures can limit the results of this problem, hence laws must be applied by the driver, the traffic light should be take under consideration of every body and the roads spaces should be used the planning treatments include the optimum use of land in the city which allow to increase using the general transportation utilities and distributing the traffic attractions area to avoid the traffic jam in the city street.

''The Education and Teaching Principle in the second Martyr Thought

Hassan Easa Al-Hakeem

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 6, Pages 15-19


The great Scholar zainul Dean bin Ali bin Ahmed Al- Tubai' Al-Amily, who was marttyrized in 966A.H/ 1558 .A.D, and who is ltnown as The second Martyr has on Educational and instructive Precepts Put them in his book and studies such as his (Munait al mureed fi Adab a Mufeed wal Mustafeed) and his (al- Diraya). The researcher finds in these two books the recepts of the second Martyr for his student focuses on the moral and educational aspect .he drew the students – scholers ( shaikhs) relation's Principle by soying (the era's shaikhs should have more searching and practicing, and that they should praise his morals and researchs, and the student should be aware of those who has shallow education to avoid any mistake).

Grammartical Deviations in O'Neill's Hairy Ape

Majid Muhammed Sadoon

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 6, Pages 47-64


The greatest American writer Eugene O'Neill (1888- 1953) achieved a recognizable place among the English and American dramatists through the stylistic features of his dramatic language .
This study investigates O'Neill's way of handling dramatic language, in Hairy Ape ,( the use of grammar from the settled norms in play writing) . It endeavors to show how O'Neill manipulates his character's dialogue and the effects of this manipulation .The problem is related to what extent O'Neill's use of language deviates from the linguistic norm , and the levels of linguistic deviation in his style.
The study aims to analyze the types of grammatical deviation in O'Neill's 'Hairy Ape'. Moreover, it attempts to justify the reasons behind these deviations (and to support some critical points of view concerning O'Neill's and style in using grammatical deviations). .
Deviation as a linguistic phenomenon has an important effect on the readers (and hearers ), if a part of a poem is deviant it becomes especially , noticeable , or perceptually prominent ( Short, 1969 : 11 ) .
Out of the stylistic analysis ,it has been found out that the writer uses a language deviated from the literary convention or everyday speech(norm). He uses different types of linguistic deviations to achieve his purposes .

The Crusades – The Term and concept

AbbasAjelAl; Samir salih Hasan AL-Umer

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 6, Pages 109-143


The crusades is a new term , and only one that the researchers use in the crusades studies. The other terms used rarely , those terms were used previously , as the pilgrimage to Jerusalem - the armed pilgrimage - , the holy wars , and the Frank wars .The last term was widespread in the Middle Ages , which was used by the Arab and European historians .
This research is about the reasons of those terms rise and the development of their concept and use .

A Functional Analysis Of The Nominal Group Structures In "There Was A Saviour"

Khalid Shakir Hussein

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 6, Pages 7-25

This paper is an attempt to explore the ways in which a close analysis of linguistic features can show how some key literary meanings are made. In the poem "There was a Saviour" by Dylan Thomas there are careful shifts in the religious representation of "the Saviour", and these shifts can be associated with certain parallel changes or developments in the structure of the nominal groups used throughout the five stanzas of the poem.
The nominal group structure is analyzed carefully into five elements: Head, Deictic, Numerative, Epithet, and Qualifier. Dylan Thomas employed them in different degrees in relation to the structural complexity of the nominal groups; he relies heavily on the Qualifier, and the Epithet to increase the structural complexity of the nominal groups in the poem.

Flood Environment Euphrates Reaver Their Influence on the

Sarahian Naiem Tashudash

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 6, Pages 187-199


This study deals with the flood environment Euphrates Reaver their Influence on the ional Expansion of Al Simawa cityConstruc
The city is located within the region of the alluvial plain on both banks of the Euphrates river. It is mainly influenced by the natural activities of the riverbed. It is also influenced by the watering activities that have caused various appearances for the surface of the ground, and distributions of different types of soil and dreg on the banks of the river within the area of the city itself. This variety of the natural phenomena has an impact on the constructional expansion of the city.
These phenomena include four main groups, which are as follows:
1. the nature of the slope of the surroundings of the city.
2. the relative difference in the heights between the two sides of the river.
3. types and characteristics of the natural river phenomena that include the following:
• Banks of River
• A wide and relatively low alluvial plain
• Middling depressions (marches)
• Banks of the sub-streams
4. Watering network and characteristics of the soil

Mythology in W. B. Yeast's Early Poetry

Sahar Abdul Ameer

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 6, Pages 27-46


Because Irish myth and folklore had been suppressed by church doctrine and British control of school system, W.B.Yeats used his poetry as a tool for re-educating the Irish population about their heritage and as a strategy for developing Irish nationalism. Thus the participation of Yeats in the Irish political system had its origins in his interest in Irish myth and folklore.
Yeats retold entire folktales in epic poems and plays and used fragments of stories in shorter poems. Moreover, he presented poems which deal with subjects, images, and themes called from folklore. Most important, Yeats infused his poetry with a rich sense of Irish culture. Even poems that do not deal explicitly with subjects from myth retain powerful tinges of indigenous Irish culture. Yeats often borrowed word selection, verse form, and patterns of imagery directly from traditional Irish myth and folklore.

Rainfall Salty and it dangers about Pollution

Abdul- Kidam Ali Jabeir; Kifah Al- Assady

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 6, Pages 69-107


The acid rains consist of gases that contains sulfur dioxide and Oxygen with ultraviolet rays.
The rains acidity was increasing with the industrial revolution as result of the huge discharge of the Sulfur dioxide nitrogen and carbon which discharged to the atmosphere with the burning of fuel such as coal.
The acid falls are not necessary to be rains ,snow or fog, the acid complex might be dry ,so the acid rainfall , from the Chemical point of view is all the air falls that arrive land or earth in all its forms, dry and damp. The rains acidity is not fixed during the whole year, rather it differs from one season to another.
The acid fall has clear negative effects on rivers, lakes, sand, human heath and on building and ruins.

((The Design of the Vegetation and its Relation With the Local Climate in Karbalaa City))

Abdul- Hassan Modfoon Abu Rhail; Samer Hadi Kiadem; Thurhaim Khiled

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 6, Pages 69-107


This research aims at revealing the role of the Vegetation in Karbalaa City in Creating moderate local climate through controlling the direct and reflected sun rays and increasing shadow rate. as well as controlling the winds through holding, driving or filtering them, and also its ability to increase humidity rate. The research included three topics, the first of which tackled a theoretical study of the relation between the plants and controlling the local climate in the dry hot cities. The second discussed designing the vegetations in the hot dry areas, the concentration was on the trees for being the most effective vegetable element on creating the local climates. As for the third, it is dedicated to evaluate the local climate of karbalaa city according to the thermal comfort requirements and the relation with the nature of its vegetation. the research reached number of results, the most important of which is that the observation points which were chosen were characterized with high vegetation intensity that showed comfort and cooling degrees for July and January that were more comfortable than in the areas having less vegetation.

Ways to maintain the identity of the contemporary Arabic city from the phenomenon of globalization

Abdul Sahib Naji Al-Baghdady; Haider Abdul; Raziq K amono

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 6, Pages 21-53


The city as an architecture structure is a human phenomenon whose image is formed through the system of thought nature. So, what this image is carrying will exactly reflect the way of thinking in the producing this image, and the continuity of interaction with images having specific forms will reflect a limited thinking that leads to adapting the elements of that thinking, Therefore, specifying a kind thinking in producing an architectural movement will make this movement possible effectively. And with the proceeding of time this will enhance the elements of that thinking.
One of the most effective mental currents on the identity of the Arabic city in the contemporary time is globalization; from one side because it looks at the world as small village, and by that it denies the differences between regions, with regard to thought traditions and habits. The beginnings of globalization and its reflections started to appear in the architectural formation of the Arabic city after it appeared in the literature and poetry .
Hence, one must deeply understood the nature of globalization, its ideologies and effects, and must diagnosis its advantages and disadvantages, its effect on the architectural formation of the Arabic city in order to completely comprehended these variants and developments ,and to confront them through using the cultural backup and total recognition.