Eco-tourism development in Iraq

Wahab Fahd al-Yasiri

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 23, Pages 11-32

Iraq has the ingredients for eco-tourism and there is the potential for sustainable development of this sector is invested in it:
2 - There is a natural and human potential can be invested for the development of eco-tourism, which will enable us to preserve the environment and its beauty and sustain the development of natural potential to create our environmental places possess the ability to attract tourists and stability of psychological addition to the availability of eco-tourism economic returns sector.
3 - The environmental capabilities available in Iraq make him areas of tourist attraction will contribute to the development of the overall economy of the country, there are lakes that are spread in Iraq as Lake (Dokan and Derbandikhan in northern Iraq and waterfalls on all my own in the province of Nineveh and Lake Thar and Razaza and Lake Sawa) and there are large areas of the marshes in southern Iraq, a station for more than 400 species of birds.
And provide enriching the natural environment which is including the following factors:
1 - the diversity of plant and animal life.
2 - biodiversity.
3 - Climate diversity.
A - variation in rainfall.
B - the contrast in temperatures.
4 - the diversity of the soil.
5 - geographic and topographic diversity

Abbrivation by Hysteron Proteron A Rytorical- Semantic Study

AqheelAbul-Zahra Mubder Al- Khaqhany; WardehaSalihNeghmash

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 23, Pages 33-66

This research studies the style of abbreviation with hysteron and proteron as one of the famous styles that the grammarian and rhetoricians agreed to give the significance of abbreviation as it has the meaning of ( ma and Illa).
The research includes two topics preceded by an introduction. The first topic deals with hysteron and proteron in the nominal sentence, and the second deals with it in the verbal sentence according to the concept that the grammarians agreed upon, each has a significance that the other cannot achieve. These significances are studied in the applied examples taken from Nahjul-Balaghah where hysteron and proteron signify abbreviation such as:-
1- Abbreviation by hysteron in the nominal sentence:-
a- Hysteron the predicate to the subject.
b- Hysteron the predicate to the verbal subject.
2- Abbreviation by hysteron in the verbal sentence:-
a- Hysteron the subject to the verb.
b- Hysteron the predicate to the verbal subject after the negation letter.
c- Hysteron the verb`s supplements.
The results come in the conclusion followed by the bibliography.

Imam Al-Hussien in HibaAldinAlshrstani

Hadi Abdul Alnabi Al-Tmimi

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 23, Pages 76-132

Mr. Hibat Din Mohammed bin Ali bin Hussain al-Shahristani, Mr. Mohsen al-Husseini was born in the city of Samarra year (1301 AH / 1884)
Was a Hibat to Mr. religion and clear political activity after the entry of the British occupation forces of Iraq (1914-1918) In (1334 AH / 1915) entrusted with the leadership of the religious scholars body to support the Freedom fighter volunteers in the Ottoman army in Kut, Qurna.
In the year (1335 AH / 1916) participated in the leadership of the Freedom fighter of the families of the Euphrates in the battle against creeping it Shuaiba English forces, also he took part in the revolution of the twentieth along with Sheikh Muhammad TaqiShirazi (1256 AH / 1840 -1339 AH / 1920).
Mr. Hibat religion served as Minister of AlmarefviAilolsnh (1340 AH / 1920 AD) in the ministry Alnguibah second, as the first minister of eminent scientists have conducted reforms value However, he resigned from the ministry the year (1341 AH / 1922).
Mr. Din died in Hibat (26 Shawwal 1386 AH / February 6, 1967) after he was eighty-five and funeral of official and popular Chie, then buried in the cultural center of Kadhimiya his institution (public library Jawadain
Mr. Hibat Din al-Shahristani has devoted a vital part of his efforts and intellectual Ahtmamth diverse topics in search of history and reflection.
It was of Imam Hussein peace be upon him an important share in the heritage of Mr. Hibat religion and will shed light on the most important research products of Mr. Hibat religion in Imam Hussain, namely:
1. Book renaissance Hussein
2. manuscript history solace Husseini
3. manuscript door Lafrads or scene-Ras Al-Sharif
4. His words in the celebrations Alashouraiah
5. In his words Al_husininh Revolution

Terms and Articles of the first world war Truce (Historical Study)

Rabi; aHaider Al- Mosawy; RuqhiyWaliHussai

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 23, Pages 133-154

This is research aims study terms and articles armistice after end the first world war, the first topic study historical background to break – out to war and why causes its war, and second topic study seven articles, thirty five terms to eastern and eastern in Europe and north Africa, naval conditions, and many of the articles general, finally, items that are added during the renewal term truce.

Contradiction Concept for Avicenna

idy; JawadKadhimSamary Al- Sa; Mohammed Abdul- Mahdi Salman

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 23, Pages 155-178

This research deals with the concept of inference (induction) linguistically and terminologically.According to the relevantliterature, researchers hove divided the inference in to two types : immediate and non- immediate.In this research the opposition part of immediate inference has been adopter
The opposition has four division ; Contradiction , Contrast, sub- contrast and sub- alertness .The purpose of this poper is to review the contradiction according to Avicenna point of view. Themothed of Comparative Analytic has been employed in this reseach.The research reveal that Avicenna has found that all the proposition do not obey to the rules of the contradiction except this Categorical proposition.

The effectiveness of the texts of children's theater in the treatment of patients with autism

Shawkat Abdul Kareem; Ivan Ali Hadi

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 23, Pages 179-214

Children's theater works through the topics presented as a measure of intelligence as it can be observed the child's ability to deal with the icons on the stage as well as measuring the computational capacity of the friendly through texts submitted by type and find out its ability to acquire the vocabulary and restored and observed in the instructions given to followers through theatrical texts, and can it deal intelligences through the following:
1. Intelligence abstract: The in ability to deal with the naked stuff like meanings, symbols and ideas and concepts and sports relations.
2. Mechanical Intelligence: The ability to deal with physical objects and performing tasks and motor skills.
3. Social Intelligence: The in the ability to communicate with others, and in the social processes and the formation of relationships and friendships.
That species three achieved through perseverance child to watch the play work and play reading texts, because they help him well to deal with symbols and ideas and learn educational concepts, as well as it gives him mobility skills make him communicate with the community, and therefore it has the chance to find a way out of the introverts that are it.

Organizational Learning Process and its Effect on Creativity in the Algerian Institution:- Field study

Rawabhiya Mariam

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 23, Pages 215-236

Cetteétude vise à mettre en valeur de l’innovation et son rôledans le processus de l'apprentissageorganisationneldansl'organisationalgérienne, considérantquel'apprentissageorganisationnelestuneétapeclédansl'organisationapprenante. Et pour cela, nous avonsinterrogé les employeursdansl’entreprise « sarlmahbouba », basésur un questionnaire comprendplusieurs questions surl’innovation qui a un effetpositif de processusd'apprentissageorganisationneldansl'organisation à l'étude.

Some of the Linguistic Mistakes between the Contemporary Use and the Holy Qur`an

Rawabhiya Mariam

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 23, Pages 237-258

The error against the right thing, and error driving and mis tide against right has erred errors wrong ... and sin guilt or deliberately him Kalkhte broken, and the error is not deliberately, and his mistake faulted and Taktiia said he made a mistake and Khtye faulting mistake and sinners Peixarhama, and sin ostracism little of everything and Khtye in religion and made a mistake: wire for error deliberately or other deliberate or wrong.
Error is not for everyone it accidentally is valid excuse to fall right God if obtained for diligence and become compromised in the punishment so as not criminalizes the sinner not be punished for a no punishment and did not make an excuse in the right subjects until he shall ensure that the aggression and Ojpt its blood money as if he threw someone thinks Sidon or of war. If is Muslim or purpose, wounding Adamia what happened Knaúm its course and then turned on the man, killing him.
The error also slippage on the right for non-intentionally, but the determination of injury or d that is not wrong.
The linguistic errors have some in the single and this individual is different from its counterpart In the movements just like: Khartoum and Khartoum, and the difference here opening included a ha character, including: Mataath and Mataath broken Almim or opened and throat, larynx annexation ha or opened, or that the difference with a single character such as (a) a D as a character in the sorry and unfortunately, others will be the difference in capital letters the word, including: the rich and the dirt, fortitude and resilience, and Juan table.
With regard to the second part, which is the errors contained in the phrase, it included a few sentences, including: from now, from now and where we mentioned (now) and the issue of expressing and construction in the Koran did not respond, expressing, but based on the Conquest in eight locations
However, there are some language holders, including Suyuti in his book: HmaAlhuama to explain the collection of mosques, c 2 / p. 187 prepared by expressing ((and chosen me to say expressing because it has not been proven to build bug, saying he Mansob on circumstantial though it entered the drag and out for situational non-static)) .
It is the sentences too: a pilgrimage to the house pilgrimage to the House, nor Alaomina not Alaúmna: to Aalaomina wrong; because Alamlawma be of the blame has been received in the Koran once and that are also covered by this section: (authorized b) and (his ear in) and a difference enhanced meaning of each sentence a witness or more from the Holy Quran, and also including: like us to, right: just like us in, and other sentences.

Libraries Burning in the Islamic History during the Fifth and Sixth centuries of Hegira

Fatima Abdul-HussainSayhood

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 23, Pages 259-318

The research entitled “Barning aptte Bookstores of the Arabic Islamic “ States in thth and 6 th Centuries A.H. has arrived at the Following Findings :
The first introduction of the Library and Archives was in the Mesopotamia duct the Flourishing of culture and the discovery of writing . Then the Egyptians used saving books system in Al-Sumerian culture .The First burning of books was burning the Prophets sayings by both caliphs Abu Bakir AL- See dig and Omar Ibn AL-khatab avoiding disagreement among Muslims in the Prophets sayings or between the Prophts sayings and the Glorious Quran-By doing this, they ignored the actual advantage of these sayings as being the seond source in Islamic legislation Concerning the legitmate and illegitimate issues .
Most burnt libraries were in the 5th and 6th Centuries A.H . because of the Abbaside caliphs policy in creating seditions among Sunnis and shias in addition to their seeking of the Turks help to clear their bad reality resulting from their weakness . Turks caused the sectarian seditions among Sunnis and shies by their slant towards Sunnis This motivated them to burn AL.Tusy library .
Burning books was not limited to burning Baghdad libraries(the centre of Abbasid estate)but also expanded to libraries of Islamic world in Cordoba (the centre Ummayade state in AL-Andulus)and the Cairo (the centre of AL-Fatimiya state)particularly libraries of shias because they contained books criticizing the political economic and social situations and calling for awareness and getting rid of unawareness .

American Independence War( 1776-1783 A.D) ( A Historical study)

Ahmed Jasim Al- Simmary; Younis Abbas Ne; ama al- Yasiry

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 23, Pages 319-360

The Title of Research is(The War of American Independenc1776-1783),One of the Important causes of the war is that the victory of British Army on France in the Seven War Freed the Colonies from the need for British protection against the French threat ,and When the British Government tried to tighten the system of imperial control and forces the colonists to contribute to imperial defense and pay part of the bill, the colonies rejected and declare the Declaration of Independence on July4,1776 established a new nation and transformed a limited revolt to secure right within the British empire.
The Research divided into an introduction, two chapter, and conclusion, The first chapter deals with the study militaries forces(1776-1778),discuss the causes of the war, the foresees military in British and America, control of British army on New York, the victory of American forces in Trenton, the control of British forces in Philadelphia, and the victory of American forces in Saratoga.
The second chapter discussed the militaries forces (1778-1781), the first point discuss the effect of battle of Saratoga on British Government, the alliance between France and America, the control of British Government on south colonies, the victory of American Forces in York Town.

The Relation between U.S Industry Violence and the Wahhabi belief

Ahmed Hassan Qhassem

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 23, Pages 361-394

Praise be to God, prayer and peace be upon His creature and The God of the good and virtuous.
Exacerbated the phenomenon of violence in the Muslim East dramatically after the US-led invasion of Iraq in 2003 and featured a radical Islamist movements in Iraq, including al-Qaeda and the Tawhid and Jihad Army Ansar al-Sunna and the Naqshbandi and Ansar al-Islam and the Islamic Army and the Islamic State of Iraq and all these movements managed Baadlogih Dinah Wahhabi.
It is no secret to each researcher that Saudi Arabia is the largest exporter of violence where it is the stronghold of the Wahhabis and the brisk thoughts which enjoys a close relationship with America and masked by the media for its groups of killing and destabilized security in the country, as happened in some of them during the change in authoritarian regimes such as Yemen, Libya, Egypt and Tunisia and what is happening in Syria and spent the most.
Came the idea of research is marked by "violence between the US industry and the Wahhabi belief" documentation of the most important facts that must be documented and not these two factors: coverage of international political and religious legitimacy to the Wahhabi Nhsr violence is no longer mentioned anything.


BasimJubairKadhim; Fareed H. H. Al-Hindawi

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 23, Pages 9-50

This paper deals with irony in electoral political speeches from pragmatic point of view represented by two American candidates: Barack Obama and George W. Bush. It has set itself to deal with this issue in particular because it has not been given due attention It falls in five sections; section one is an introduction, section two provides a literature review on irony, section three is to develop a model for ironic analysis, section four is about the analysis of the data, and section five sums up the conclusions. The paper attempts to investigate ironic strategies, stages, the possibility of understanding irony from the speaker's illocutionary force, and explicating the gradualness of the ironic insincerity where insufficient contextual clues exist. To achieve such aims, a model is developed for the analysis of irony in political electoral speeches. The findings of the analysis verify the hypotheses represented by the process of ironic stages, strategies, ironic insincerity of the speaker, and irony is an ostensible speech act. On the contrary, it rejects the hypothesis of not conveying irony where insufficient contextual clues exist.

Iraqi EFL Learners' Manipulation of the Speech Act of Refusal

May Salih Ibrahim; RazzaqNaifMukheef Al-Shafie

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 23, Pages 51-80

This study is concerned with revealing some aspects of Iraqi EFL learners' manipulation of the speech act of refusal. The study falls into four sections. Section one introduces the problem, aims, hypotheses, procedures, limits and the value of the study. Section two is devoted to the theoretical framework of refusal speech act. Section three is about collecting and analyzing data and section four is concerned with the conclusions of this study.
In order to achieve the objectives of the study, the researcher conducted a test in which 100 IraqiEFLCollege students at the fourth year Department of English, College of Education, University of Babylon were asked to respond to the test of the study. Their performance is compared to the performance of a control group (10 NESs). Concerning the second objective of the study which is to find out if there is any evidence of pragmatic transfer, the test has been translated into Arabic and (10) native speakers of Arabic are involved in the test to compare their responses with those of Iraqi learners.

La Modernité et les Petits Poèmes en Prose de Baudelaire

Mohammed Hassan Hussain; Zouhair M. AL Idani

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 23, Pages 81-94

Petits Poèmes en prose or Le Spleen de Paris’ has illustratedBaudelaire’sproject for adoptingpoetryrepresents modern life. This volume depicts the life and destiny of the man in the multitude of the physical life. It is a unique thing; it represents a miracle that combines prose with poetry. In the volume of ‘PetitsPoèmes en prose or Le Spleen de Paris’, Baudelaire pays great attention to the metaphoric image and all kinds of metaphors that can reveal multiple meanings; hence, ‘PetitsPoèmes en prose’ suggests its poetry. For Baudelaire, the image is charged with symbolic payload inviting the reader to make the effort in discovering the potential secret and meaning beyond words. Baudelaire is keen on the suggestive magic in this new literary of genre; consequently, he is considered as its first pioneer. He introduces a different and new style in a special way. From contacts with big cities and countless intersected relations, this example of urgent poetry has been initiated to be suitable for describing modern life, more abstract and freedom, to be musical without rhythm or rhyme, and smooth enough to agree with the lyrical movements of the soul and the daydream ripples and awareness uprisings.

Coreness and Frequency: Concepts and Applications to Vocabulary Teaching and Learning

Ihssan A. J. Al-Muslimawi

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 23, Pages 95-108

The notions of ‘Coreness and Frequency’in English are becoming increasingly prominent issues in applied linguistics. Numerous studies have argued thatbothconceptsare not new topics orcontroversial issues, becausethey are applicable to various analyses and definitions.Several studies (such as: Carter, 1998; Durkin,1986; Lee,2001; McCarthy,1999)have revealed the corevocabularycharacteristics of specific words and suggested parameters for any word to qualify as a core word in practical texts. Others (such as: Nation,2001; Schmitt,2000; Schmitt & McCarthy,2002) have graded vocabulary and created word-lists targeting to various levels for testing, teaching, and pedagogical purposes.
Key words: Coreness, Core Vocabulary (CV), Frequency