Greek History and Illuminism

Hamid Abdul-Hamza Mohammed Ali; Hamza Jaber Sultan

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 5, Pages 151-203


In the course of our research, we reached some conclusions that largely express research intent :

1- The Greek history was not dead, it was a live one in all of its stages.
2- The Greek people is interested in the cultural aspects, this is clear through the life history of its citizens and their interest in the different kinds of science and knowledge.
3- The Greek history and culture were based on mix between old cultures with an attempt to make use of past nations' sciences.
4- The Greek culture is widely-spreading, this made unity the most vivid subject in the mind of the Greek.
5- Intellectual correlation with the Eastern cultures is clearly evident in the ancient philosophy of Greece.
6- All sources of study of Greek culture, especially Homer and Hesiod and their expression of legendary spirit, were rooted in the cultures of Nile and Mesopotamia.
7- Freedom was the most prevalent feature of Greek citizen in the period meant in the research.
8- Beginnings of philosophical thoughts and use of the word (philosophy) were in Greece, in spite of the eastern roots in the Greek philosophy.
9- Absence of religious teaching and authority of religion and churchmen opened the way for philosophy and for its first seeds to grow.
10- Greek philosophy emerged in a period when no output was to answer many questions concerning nature and universal phenomena .
11- Developments in the post-contemplation philosophical aspects and attempts to answer the questions that remained unsolved are the results of new mode in the Greek thinking.
12- The organized stage in the Greek thinking through establishing philosophical schools and preparing scientific methodology for philosophical thought.
13- Research in nature and outside words represents what is called naturalists in philosophy.
14- Through sophism, philosophical research in Greece turned towards man's self after being searching in the outside world .
15- Emergence of individualism for the Greek citizen.
16- Through the establishment of Pythagorean school, there appeared an interest in the mathematical aspect. It was included as one source of knowing existence.
17- There appeared tow directions in philosophy: the first is called fluxionism, put by Heraclites, and the second is called substantialism, put by Parmenides.

Samples of Advanced Options Pricing & their Role in Defining Option Premium Value & Constructing Hedging Portfolio- An Applied Study in the Iraqi Bank Sector

Jaleel Kadhim Medlool

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 5, Pages 204-233


This paper aims at using advanced financial systems as Fischer Black & Myron Scholes model & Binominal Option Pricing Model (The One Period Binominal Model), (The Two Period Binominal Model), . In the field of Iraqi financial banking, which completely lacks such systems, according to this point, it is possible to support the theoretical and field aspects and to direct the interest of researchers and people interested in the financial field to participate largely in developing the banking aspect through the adoption of financial tools which are largely used in the developing countries where there are efficient financial markets.
At this point, it is possible to deal with the problem on which the present paper is based and attain its aim. The main purpose behind the use of these tools is to hedge the risks of price fluctuations then reduce the risks.
A number of quantity methods (Financial & Mathematical) have been used in the field aspects of the paper. The paper has come out with a number of conclusions, most important of which is the possibility of the application of future strategies at the Iraqi bank environment.

Style as a Product

May Ali Abdul-Ameer; Khalid Shakir Hussein

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 5, Pages 57-78


Styles of structuring English sentence can be seen as a product of certain structural principles. Christensen suggests four principles that one should take into consideration when analyzing sentence-structure into layers or levels. Two principles are structure-centered: Addition.; and Direct of Modification, while one is meaning-centered: principle of levels of generality; and the fourth is stylistically oriented, principle of Texture or Style. The researcher thinks that Christensen's Scheme holds a great deal of analytic linguistic potentialities that could be used in characterizing the literary styles of different writers. Thus, the styles of three writers, Hemingway, Conrad, and Faulkner, are taken as a subject of analysis. Then, the style of sentence-structure of each is characterized differently, whether in relation to the structural levels of the sentences they used or in relation to the grammatical categories of the Additions which they added either to premodify or postmodify the main clauses.

Contributions of Mero-AlShahjan's Scholars in the Intellectual Movement in Baghdad during the Third and Fourth H. C.

Jabir Razzaq Ghazi

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 5, Pages 309-342


The establishment of Baghdad in 149 A.H was the beginning of the new scientific age not only in Iraq but throughout the world. First, Baghdad began to be at the top of world towns in all fields especially intellectual and scientific ones. In Baghdad arose one of the best scholars whom the human beings proud of because they produced and introduced important sciences and information. Those achievements which was made by Baghdad wasn’t achieved unless the efforts and contributions was made efforts by different scholars who intend it for different reasons. We know that Baghdad was established first to be king town no science town so the science which it had was transferred to it. This science was the profit of efforts made by people who reached it and became intelligent and also who teach and write poetry and composed books so the scholars of (Maro Al-Shahijat) had role to contribute in forming Baghdad's scientific and intellectual identity which push it towards the top. From this idea, the research whose title (contributions of Maro Al-Shahijat scholars in the intellectual movement in Baghdad during third and fourth century After Hijra) was written to show the role of Baghdad's scholars and follow who came to it. It also disclose the nature of their contributions in its intellectual life.

Writing and Linguistic Properties of Sothern and Northern Arabic Writing

Nuhad Hassan Haji; Hashim Taha Raheem

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 5, Pages 416-445

The most important advantage of the Arabic literature of the South and North is that they wrote the line ascribed to either of the languages of Abyssinia, it was written in the beginning of the line ascribed to the line and then they invented Aljazi also found in the literature of northern Arab character do not exist in the literature and the High North as alveniqi created and the Aramaic language that preserved the oldest Aljazi Photo missed by the Commissioner of the other Semitic Languages is the most important of these pictures of non-discrimination between the masculine and feminine.

What to Conjugate and not to Conjugate by Old and Recent Grammarians

Abdul-Wahid Khalaf Wassaq

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 5, Pages 343-378


The noun which is conjugated is the one in which vowels appear on it. This because it is unlike verb, but the noun which is not conjugated is the one which fragment does not appear on it because it is like the verb.
The noun which is not conjugated must have one adjective which is a branch of adjectival; male is a branch of female and plural is a branch of singular….etc.
There are five types of verbs that are not conjugated with unknown and known, while the seven conjugated verbs according their literal case all of them are mentioned in details in the study.

A Comparative Study of Some Functional Variables of Kidney among Students of Department of Physical Education and Department of Computers

Munaf Abdul-Azeez Mohammed; Mohammaed Jasim Al-Khalidi

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 5, Pages 234-278


Aim of this study is to know the positive and negative effects of bodily activity on the functions of kidney. The researchers used the functional approach and a sample consisting of ten students of the Department of the Physical Education and another one from the Department of Computers. Urea and blood specimens were taking from all students before and after physical effort, and control studies were conducted. In the light of results reached, the researchers drew a set of conclusions in the fifth part of the study, among them is that (sport must be practiced by all, not for competition, but for general health).

Ultimate Designation of Political Boundaries between Qatar & Al-Bahrain & their Future Relationship

Majeed Hameed Shihab

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 5, Pages 100-150

The importance of this study is due to strategical location of Qatar-Bahrain boundaries and their geographical features which lead to that the great nations countries considered their interest in stratigical and economical characteristics of this region which moved external policy of these great countries since Ottmanian and British then American presence in this region, in addition to policy suitability of these powers with regional trends in viewing the economic benefits without any consideration to political geography of study area which inverse the dangerous situation on delimitation of our political boundaries as a part of Arabian Gulf in agreement with the accepted strategy of this states without attention to geographical considerations.
The study region scope of view on wide marine area give it special stratigical importance, due to neighboring a vital passage of south western Asia like Hormuze strait and Bab Al-mindab which where they considered as stratigical gateway for ship passage.
The economic features of the study region in power field composed the critical role of more British and American special consideration in addition to generally western attention. The study referred to weak Arabian position to resolve the boundary disagreement between Qatar and Bahrain.

Bishr bin Abi Khazim al-Asadi between Falling down and Highness

Khaleel Abdul-Sada Ibraheem

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 5, Pages 64-99


The poet's attitudes, towards the events of his era, affected, appositively or negatively, the technical level of his poetic productivity because man, affected by his intellectual and tribal tendency and belongingness, keeps no fixed status and that affect his behavior and the nature of his language.
The poet Bisher bin Khazim al-Asadi is one of the poets whose poetry was affected clearly by their attitudes towards one issue which is the issue of al-No'man bin al-Mundhir who took off robe and honor for Aws bin Harith al-Ta'i, the matter that made the other tribes' chiefs envy him and urged the poet Bisher to satirize him. He satirized him severely and described him with characteristics that the Arab man disdain, this step affected his poetry negatively and represented a sign of a technical falling down that he could not avoid till he changed his mind and attitude towards Aws and his folk due to the wisdom of Aws' mother who advised her son to be gentle with the poet when he being able to punish him. Hence, he wrote the poems, by which he praised Aws and his tribe, which we call "the correction poems" that referred to the highness of the poet's soul after its falling down. This highness affected his poetry's language and image where he reformed the image of Aws and his folk, according to their reality and social position that he deformed by his false satire. He followed the meaning of his satire to contradict them one by one, and purify himself of prejudice to elevate his style as he elevated his soul.

The Palestinian Population in Israel A Study in the Demographic Evolution and Geographic Distribution

Yousif Kamil Ibraheem

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 5, Pages 11-63


The research discusses Arabs or Palestinians inside 48, and 48 Palestinians plight of Palestine, the evolution and growth of the Palestinian population 48, the birth and fertility when the Palestinians in Israel, where did Palestinian die in Israel, age structure, dependency ratio, size of family, work force, distribution Geographical of the Palestinian population, the evolution of the geographical distribution and relative numbers of the Palestinian population, the degree of population pressure, Israel and the Palestinians in the demographic conflict.

For Better Composition Writing

a Talib Sa; ad AL-Auboudi; Isra

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 5, Pages 79-100

This paper aims at explaining the importance of learning certain aspects of the writing skill which help learners to write good composition. Therefore, it presents a number of steps which can be followed in teaching composition and which can make its teaching clear, easy, understood, and interesting. In other words, the aim of this paper is to teach learners some basic points about writing composition because knowing how to express ideas in writing in an organized way is important for them.
The paper includes two sections. The first section is devoted to presenting and defining three important concepts: writing, speech and composition. It shows their vital role in the teaching process and the connection holding between them. This section serves as a base for presenting the ideas and explanations in the second section.
The second section is intended to provide answers to a number of questions related to different aspects of teaching composition. Answers to these questions constitute the theme of the second section. The questions include:
- What does writing require?
- How can learners' compositions be improved?
- What are the methods followed to build up good compositions?
- What type of difficulties do learners face when learning how to write?
As a result, a number of steps which can be used in teaching and which can make it effective and interesting are illustrated in this section. These steps should be followed systematically if one wants to master the written form of the language. Throughout the presentation of these steps, some methods and techniques will be suggested and explained to facilitate the process of teaching and to ensure that learners will get ready for the act of writing and gain a high degree of efficiency.

A Modular Analysis of Arabic Journalistic Texts

Abbas H. Jassim

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 5, Pages 9-56

Abstract There are two principal approaches to discourse analysis, the multi-dimensional approach and the modular approach. The first is proposed by kerbrat-Orecchioni (1997) and it tries to combine eclectically the results and findings of studies on different dimensions of discourse organization in order to achieve a more comprehensive picture. The second approach is initiated by NØlke, Motsch and Roulet. Relying on NØlke and Motsch, Roulet (1997) suggests an approach to discourse analysis that rests on the modularity of mind hypothesis proposed by Jerry Fodor (1983). According to Fodor (ibid.), mind is a computational engine which is peripherally modular. The model put forward and modified repeatedly by Eddy Roulet (1997) is called the Geneva model of discourse analysis. Roulet (ibid.) claims that a modular approach constitutes an interesting and powerful methodology for describing the complexity of discourse organization. Different facets of discourse or talks-in-interaction are broken down into their simplest primitive elements. Discourse has situational, textual and linguistic components. Each of them consists of central and non-central modules whose results are coupled according to certain meta-rules. In this study, I apply Geneva model of discourse analysis to some Arabic journalistic texts. It has been discovered that Geneva model of discourse analysis is a successful tool in describing the discourse organization of journalistic texts in Arabic.الخلاصة هناك اتجاهين رئيسين في تحليل الخطاب, يتمثل الأول في نظرية الأبعاد المتعددة والثاني في نظرية الوحدات0 بينما يحاول الاتجاه الأول والتي اقترحها اوركجياني 1997 إلى ربط النتائج والاكتشافات الخاصة بالأبعاد المختلفة للنصوص للوصول إلى صورة أكثر شمولية, يقوم الاتجاه الثاني بتحليل النصوص إلى وحدات تحليلية نظرية تسمى (Modules)0 تسمى النظرية الثانية بمدرسة جنيفا في تحليل الخطاب(GMDA) واستمدت هذه النظرية فلسفتها من فرضية الوحدات العقلية التي اقترحها جيري فودر عام 1983 وحسب الأخيرة فان العقل الإنساني عبارة عن ماكنة حاسوبية تتألف من وحدات منفصلة ومستقلة0 ويقول العالم روليت صاحب نظرية جنيفا إن نظريته من الوسائل القوية والفاعلة في وصف وتحليل تعقيدات تنظيم الخطاب0ومن وجهة نظره فان أوجه النص المختلفة يمكن أن تقسم إلى مكونات بدائية بسيطة وهي: المكون السياقي والمكون النصي والمكون اللغوي, ولكل مكون من هذه المكونات مجموعتين من الوحدات المركزية والغير مركزية ۥتجمع نتائجها حسب مجموعة من القواعد الخاصة (meta-rules). يتناول البحث الحالي تحليلا للنصوص الصحفية العربية في ضوء نموذج جنيفا في تحليل الخطاب ( GMDA) وقد تم جمع وتبويب النصوص المناسبة وقد وقع الاختيار على مقال لوزير الإعلام الأردني السابق صالح القلاب كنموذج للتحليل وقد توصل البحث إلى إن نظرية جنيفا من الأدوات القوية والفاعلة في وصف التنظيم النصي والخطابي للنصوص العربية الصحفية.

Reality of Geographic Distribution of Health Services in Semawa City & its Effeciency in 2008

Mahir Nasir Abdullah

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 5, Pages 379-415


An individual's health is a fundamental objective of all human societies as an effective factor for the survival of a vital element of the individual is able to engage in productive economic activity and believes in the survival of the efficiency of social life and development and ensure that paper and the progress of society, who lives in the course.
And that health planning is the organizational means to develop health care programs "preventive and treatment" at all levels and is an effective way to coordinate health services to achieve the objectives efficiently.
Research coverage has included the theory of the mechanism the health system as the study included a review of the reality of the spatial distribution of population and health services and the extent of the distribution to all sectors of the city of Samawah, the study has included measurement of the adequacy of health services at the level of the revival of the city and the adequacy of the revival of the city, and the efficiency of the site and the spatial locations of health services based on planning standards and criteria of health Global evaluation of the quality of health services, said that one of the most important conclusions of the study is to describe the adequacy of health services and the extent of variation in efficiency at the level of neighborhoods

Effect of Climatic Factors on the Productivity of Palm in Iraq

Kadhim Ibadi Hammadi

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 5, Pages 279-308

This is a research study of the impact of climatic factors on the productivity of palm in Iraq, as is the palm of crops affected by climatic factors and non-climatic and reflected on the amount of production of dates Vtmthelt climatic factors to be focused on in this study on the temperature and the amount of brightness and the solar wind and the rain and humidity, where the effect of each factor varies according to the germination, which is also vary from place to place according to the site to observe the area of agriculture.
It was necessary to identify characteristics of appropriate climate for the growth of palm trees, and, through access to the climatic requirements for growth, we found that the palm needs to temperatures ranging between (14.4 -17.7 m) throughout the period of growth ranging between (220-240) days.
The study in this research study (10) weather stations as shown in Table (1) and Fig (1), mostly in the Sahel region as one of the most important sedimentary Amnatq production of palm in Iraq in terms of climatic conditions for the production of palm Balstua temperature and solar collected and the relative humidity and rainfall and evaporation / transpiration and the climate of the period 1970 - 2000
We have identified four major weather stations in the country are distributed within the area of the sedimentary plain, as shown in Fig (1) so that we can easily study and address climate impacts on the productivity of the palm as well as the coverage area of the production of palm trees in Iraq, the researcher identified the stations (Samarra, Ramadi, Diwaniyah , Basrah), where these plants has been characterized by the following characteristics:
1 - different rates, where the rain was divided into three stations, including:
A - guaranteed rain stations.
B stations are almost guaranteed rain
C - plants are not guaranteed rain.
2 - variation in the height above sea level.
3 - the different influence of the neighboring steel water Qatar.
4 Palm difference to the productivity of disparate non-climatic factors such as topography, soil and human factors, and others, were studied in the above-mentioned climatic factors and their impact on the productivity of the palm through the stages (germination and pollination and flowering and maturity), which vary from one area to another as shown in Table No. (2)
The statistical data processing in accordance with the statistical SPSS program and the application of linear regression equation and the multi-factor analysis of variance and Althdidaly data in table (3) issued by the General Authority for Weather and Iraqi results showed that the supplements at the end of the search, which ended with some conclusions relevant.