Geographic characteristics in Babil governorate and the possibility of increasing the fish culture

MahmoodBedr Ali Al-Samee; Nuha Ni; emah

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 25, Pages 11-46

This study aims at revealing the conditions of Pisciculture and fish production in Babylon Government, analyzing the natural elements as relating this aspect and the ability of developing it via defining the problems that obstruct this development.
The importance of this study resulted from being depending on a very important and vital subject which is fish wealth which connected deeply with the society life and securing its developmental future especially that this subject related the nutritive aspect which is the base of society development .In addition the fish wealth is a renewal wealth might be preserved to be depended on to face the increased population in our country .
The study depends on the research methods that the researcher preferred knowing that all these methods are within the general geographic method which are represented by connection , distribution and analysis .The researcher referred to all the available researches and studies that dealt with the fish wealth ( pisciculture ) ,leaflets , magazines and the relating offices as well as the information that are taken from the previous studies and the field studies .
This research deals with the nutrition and economic importance of fish, as well as the increasing number of the fish cultivations in Iraq and in the government from 2003 – to 2010, and also reviews the geographic distribution of the fish cultivation and their production according to the administrative units in province of Babylon for 2010, as well as the study of geographical features affecting in breeding and production of fish in the study area.
The study obtain a set of conclusions such as :-
1- The fish cultivations numbers are increased in Iraq in 2010 comparing with 2005 and the following years , and so it in Babylon where the number was (400) in 2003 and became (714 ) in 2010.
2- The fish cultivations numbers are varied according to administrative units in Babylon, the center of Al-Mahaweel district occupied the first position, followed by Al- Eskanderiya and Sadat Al –Hindiyah. Marketing had the great effect on this concentration.
3- Babylon government had the natural elements that helped in establishing pisciculture represented by site , surface nature, climatic characteristics, soil and water resources) with the possibility of increasing the productivity and improving the quality

Bacteriologic characteristics of ShatAl- kufa water

KifahSaleh Al- Asady; IsrraaGhanimshaheed

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 25, Pages 47-60

Dealt Find an environmental study of the characteristics of the Shatt al-Kufa water bacteriological and to aim know potability),and contaminated the Shatt al-Kufa water and agricultural wastes (waste fertilizers and pesticides) and remnants of heavy sewage and this leads to an increase in the concentration of dissolved salts of organic and inorganic materials and suspended solids in the water, which affects the health of Human directly and indirectly and at different ranges of time;, as litter houses and heavy sewer be a good environment for the transmission of diseases as containing such water on a number of bacteria or pathogenic bacteria or parasites, and it was carried out some tests for the detection of the degree of contamination and the Shatt al-Kufa water properties Albaalogih , spatially and temporally vary depending on the variation of natural and human conditions (due this spatial variation of the number of bacteria and bacterial college colon) to the discharge of heavy water toward the surface water, either through the sewer network link or highlight individual sewage into the river directly, which helps to nutrient availability to those of bacteria and make some sites unfit for human use, and spatial variation of the presence of typhoid disease and cholera in some locations is a bacterial infection, causes diarrhea and vomiting usually found in water contaminated by feces or feces where no water treatment is sufficient and this confirms the validity of the hypothesis ((bacteriological characteristics of the Shatt al-Kufa contrast spatially and temporally, for reasons of natural and human))

Abdullah Al-Nadeem; his political Attitudes, Religious method and role in the Ouraby Revolution till 1881 A.D.

Mohammed salihHaneioor Al- Zaiyady; Aseel Mahdi Shahir al- Himidawy

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 25, Pages 61-126

تناولت هذه الدراسة شخصية مهمة في تاريخ مصر والتي مايزال أثرها العلمي واضحاً في رفد البحوث والدراسات ، ومن خلال قراءة متأنية لهذه الدراسة توصلت الى مايأتي :
1- كانت لأراء عبد الله النديم اثرها الواضح في تحول حركة احمد عرابي في بدايتها من ذات أهداف عسكرية الى ثورة ذات أهداف شاملة ، اذ أن عبد الله النديم هو الذي أعطى لأحمد عرابي مشروعية قيامة بثورته .
2- كان النديم مدركاً أن وسائل الاستعمار البريطاني كثيرة للإيقاع بالشعوب ولاسيما بين المصريين الاقباط والمسلمين ، فسعى إلى قطع الطريق على البريطانيين باستغلال الأقباط وجعل المعركة بين البريطانيين والمصريين .
3- تميز النديم بأنه دائب الحركة فهو من رجال العمل والعلم , ذات صفات قيادية واضحة ، فهو ذكي ، سريع البديهية والحجة , وظريف المحاضرة ، وحلو الشمائل , جريء , عاش حياته بتأمل التحديات التي تواجه بلاده , بعزيمة وروح وثّابة لا تكل عن العمل لصالح وطنه , دائم التفكير في كيفية اصلاحه اكثر من التفكير بنفسه واسرته ، فهو نذر نفسه لخدمة وطنه ، وقد وصفه البعض : " بأنه نادرة عصره واعجوبة دهره " ، ووصفه آخر :" ليس في طلائع نهضتنا مثلاً اخر عن هذا الطراز يقارع عبد الله النديم " .كان له الدور الواضح في الثورة العرابية ، إذ ظهر دوره في غمرة هذه الاحداث من خلال خروجه وهو يجوب البلاد ويستنهض الهمم لقتال المحتلين البريطانيين, ويذكي نار الحماس في قلوب الشعب ليدافع عن كرامته وشرفه وعرضه ودينه ، يخطب الناس في المساجد والطرقات ، وفي الحقول والمجتمعات ، يتلو عليهم القرأن ، وينشدهم الشعر ليبث فيهم روح النخوة والحمية

Existance Harmonics for Hidger and its effect of the philosophy of Ghadameer

Zaid Abbas Al- Kubaisy; ty Abdul-Ridha; IsraaMo

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 25, Pages 127-148

Hermeneutics was a wide gate through which the philosopher can enter to select a new line of research where the research aim is represented to exhibit the Hermeneutics importance by enable the researchers to understand history and aesthetic and to go beyond the abstract writings to reveal a far and hidden fact, yet Hermeneutics gives more than one understood fact, the study scope is restricted to two contemporary philosophers :- Martin Heidegger and Gadamer.

The History of Journalist Development n Iran 1819 – 1914

AhmadS.Abed Al-alaq

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 25, Pages 149-190

Journalism and journalists in Iran had some type of relative freedom during its early stage since the 19th century until the beginning of the constitutional movement in 1905. The country back then witnessed the issue of newspaper by the efforts of the Iranian government supported by the Shah. Its articles did not include any criticism to the policy of the state and the way it dealt with the foreign existence in Iran. This paved the way for the educated elite, who saw himself competent, to issue a newspaper and a magazine representing the tendency of the journalists and also the tendency of the Iranian people and their desire to liberate and be free.
After the events of the constitutional movement in 1905, the policy of the Iranian government changed towards the freedom of journalism, as number of rules were issued to organize the work of these newspapers and issuing new ones were not as easy as it was previously. The observation system set strict rules for the work of journalism especially during critical times that Iran went through at that time. Not only that, but the state faced criticism for the arrests and shutting down the offices of the newspapers that had attitudes against the government. In spite of that the efforts of the educated people did not end at that limit, but on the contrary they increased. The first period of the reign of Shah Ahmed Qajar 1909-1925 has witnessed the emerge of Hundreds of newspapers and magazines that had different tendencies.

Title and its significance in the text of the poet Salih Al- Dhalimy

Muna Jabir Migbel

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 25, Pages 191-210

Adoption search choose the dialectic between cultural Portal feed and read literary texts and methodology employed in the title and in the text of his guises for alzalmy to access the interrogation of what it is and its impact in an indication identifying the mechanisms of the influence of knowledge and manifestations in readable text, with the operation of the poet to write style my hair and not unrelated to the context and Sunan write Arabic through the old text as representative of Arabic poetry, personal to keep away from the reflection of reality or the rumblings of the canopy that are underneath the awareness The poet is the umbrella of the 1950s and 1960s to foster cultural influence that produced consciousness.

Rooting contemporary renewal of diligence

Rooting contemporary renewal of diligence

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 25, Pages 211-252

مر البحث بمقولات عدة بطريقة سريعة اولية ، تحتاج كلا منها الى وقفة كاملة عند كل شاردة وورادة منها . وهي على اهميتها نجددها قد درست من قبل بعض المفكرين الاسلاميين وايضا درسها المستشرقون قبلنا، ولم تحرر بشكل كامل ومناسب في المجاميع الفقهية والحوزات الدينية التي تركز على انتاج الفقه المعاصر وبطرق تقليدية مستقرة ... البحث عبارة عن اثارة اولية لتاصيل الاجتهادات المعاصرة في المدرستين الشيعية والسنية في ابرز مقولاتهم ، وكانت
1- المقولة التاريخية
2- مقولة ضرورة الاعتماد على الالسنية والدراسات اللغوية الحديثة.
3- الاجتهادات في الحكم الاسلامي الامام الخميني انموذجا.
4- الدراسات التاويليةالهرمنيونوطيقية عند شبستريوسروش.
5- استعراض اراء بعض المفكرين في نظرتهم لآصول الفقه وكيفية تجديده حسن حنفي ومحمد شحرورانموذجا.
خلص البحث الى ضرورة الانفتاح على الدراسات العلمية الحديثة في المجالات الاجتماعية والنفسية والانثروبولوجية للوصول الىتاصيل لهذه المقولات الفلسفية والفكرية واللغوية والوصول الى فهم امثل للواقع وبالتالي لإنتاج فقه عصري يتناسب مع عظمة الانسان وخلوده وخاتميته.

Morphometric Analysis of Characteristics of the Rebaish Basin of the in Najaf Province using GIS

Kamil HamzaFleifel Al-assadi

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 25, Pages 253-274

The research aims to detect variation morphometric characteristics of the valley Rbaish within the Western Plateau in the province of Najaf and the impact of geographic and natural of the situation and geological characteristics of the surface, climate and water resources, soil and natural vegetation to contrast those characteristics factors, included a search spatial and morphological characteristics of the terrain and the characteristics of network valleys using GIS analysis , showing which of the basin reached maturity or balance in its Erosion Basin occupies an area of 308 km 2, mostly in the western plateau province of Najaf, a small part in the Diwaniyah province, as the basin is located within the pavement is stable twisted when the division of Iraq physiographic .
The research includes the introduction included the problem and hypothesis and the goal and importance and methodology and spatial boundaries and came first topic to study the natural factors of the study area, while eating the second section analysis of the most important morphometric characteristics of the basin and water network using geographic information systems and a number of important programs then the most important results that have been reached.

Contemporary critical trends in the Usuli thought

NeserSalih Al-Battat

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 25, Pages 275-336

الحمد لله رب العالمين, والصلاة والسلام على سيدنا محمد وآله الطاهرين.
وبعد..
يُعدّ علم أصول الفقه من المعطيات الفكرية المتميزة في الأمة الإسلامية لما يرسمه من قوانين لاستكشاف أحكام الشرع الحنيف في ضوء منهج البحث الفقهي، ولذا فهو يمثل القانون الذي يعصم ذهن المجتهد عن الخطأ في الاستدلال على أحكام الشرع من طرقها التفصيلية, ويرتبط منهج أصول الفقه بالواقع الفكري المعاصر لتلازمه مع الفقه وارتباط الفقه بالواقع المعاش، لما له من وظيفة مهمة زيادة على البحث في الأحكام الشرعية الفرعية المسجلة سابقاً من جهة اختلاف الاستدلال, ويتصور ذلك بالبحث في مناطات الأحكام الشرعية من أجل تنزيلها منازلها, عن طريق ملاحظة ما يستجد من حوادث وتطورات. ولاسيما مع انفتاح العالم الإسلامي على الحضارات الأخرى؛ وذلك مما حداببعض المفكرين الإسلاميين إلى تبني قراءة جديدة لعلم أصول الفقه من أجل إيجاد معالجة "إشكالية المنهج" في الفكر الإسلامي المعاصر, واستنتاج وتأسيس أسس يبتني عليها قوام نظرية العلم، وتبديد العمى المعرفي؛ لذا صار نقد منهج أصول الفقه من أهم الإشكاليات الفكرية في العلوم الإسلامية، لأنه يشكل خطوة أولية للخوض في النظر في المستحدثات الفقهية، مع الحفاظ على أصوله الثابتة, وكذلك في مسائل تفسير النص من القرآن الكريم والسنة الشريفة.
وقد تناول المفكرون المعاصرون منهج الأصول التقليدي بالنقد لما لاحظوا أن بعض مباحثه نظرية متقوقعة في مسائل علم الكلام والفلسفة, ولا تواكب التطورات في علم اللغة, متجردة عن لحاظ التغيرات الاجتماعية عند صياغة القواعد الكلية التي تتكفل باستنباط الأحكام الشرعية الفرعية. وقد ظهرت في العصر الراهن تيارات واتجاهات فكرية متعددة، بدعوى تغيير المجتمعات وتطوير العلوم الشرعية، وتوسيع باب الاجتهاد بملاحظة مقتضيات التطورات التقنية وما يرافقها من تداعيات, باستخدام معطيات العقول.
ومن ذلك يُلحظ أن مشروع الخطاب النقدي لعلم أصول الفقه أخذ يسير باتجاهات ثلاثة, فمنها ما هو حديث مستعار تأثر بالمستورد من الأفكار, ومنها ما هو سلفي توقيفي, ومنها ما هو إصلاحيّ.
إذ استوحى بعضهم أفكاره النقدية متأثراً بحداثة الغرب, وقد يتسم هذا الاتجاه بسمة تبعيّة؛ كإدخال ألفاظ حديثة مستوردة, متذرعاً –هذا الاتجاه- ببعض دلالات النصوص الشرعية التي توحي بفتح أفق الاجتهاد, وأن ثبات النص لا يلغي ما في مضمونه من حركية، وأنه يختزن مضموناً حيّا لا تحده حدود الزمان والمكان, ليدعو في ضوء ذلك إلى إلغاء الثوابت.
وقد تزمّت اتجاه آخر للنص والتزام طريقة السلف, حذراً من الانجرار خلف الأفكار الجديدة, متذرعاً ببعض النصوص التي يمكن أن يفاد منها الإبقاء على ما استقر من معارف والمنع من إدخال الجديد.
في الوقت ذاته هناك اتجاه متوسط ينظر إلى قضية نقد المنهج الأصولي بوسطية واعتدال, في محاولة لمواكبة الواقع المعاش من جهة, والحفاظ على روح النص وصيانة الهوية الإسلامية وصيانة كيانها عن كل زيغ, في توجه إصلاحي لا ينأى في ذلك عن النص الشرعي, من جهة أخرى
ولمّّّّا كانت قضية نقد منهج أصول الفقه مهمة تدور بين الضرورة والمنع, وبين النظر التوفيقي المتوسط, تمثلت في اتجاهات: الأول؛ وهو القائل بضرورة نقد منهج علم أصول الفقه من ناحية الهيكلية والمضمون معاً. والثاني؛ يُفند صحة الدعوة إلى نقد علم أصول الفقه، ويبطل أية محاولة في هذا الاتجاه. أما الثالث فهو يحاول أن يوفّق بين الموقفين السابقين المتعارضين. فهو لا يقول بنقد أصول الفقه ككل، ولا يرفض تجديد أصول الفقه رفضا قاطعاً. ولأجل التأمل والنظر في هذه الاتجاهات وعرض جملة من أفكارهم, ومناقشة بعضها, وملاحظة مدى تأثيرها على منهج أصول الفقه, إيجاباً أو سلباً. جاء هذا البحث على ثلاثة مباحث: المبحث الأول: ضرورة النقد والتجديد. المبحث الثاني: ثبات المنهج. المبحث الثالث: التفصيل والتوسط. ليقف على أهم ما في هذه النقود ومعالجتها بعد تشخيص غير المخلّ بالثوابت من غيره. وما هو ممكن التطبيق الذي يصب في تطور هذا العلم خدمة للدين الإسلامي الحنيف.
نسأل الله تعالى أن يتقبل منا هذا الجهد المتواضع, ويغفر ما فيه من زلة أو شطط, فالعصمة لأهلها.
والحمد لله رب العالمين.

Le cognitive strategy effect on the achievements of the second secondary female students in Geograpgy

Fatima Mohammed Allawy

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 25, Pages 337-390

The recent research aims to identify ( The effect of cognitive strategy on the achievement of second year intermediate female students in geography material ) .
To achieve the aim and the hypothese , the researcher choose the experimental design with partial contrd including post – test for both groups .
The population of the research includes the second year intermucliute students in the intermucliute and Secondry Schools – morning studies / dieretorte general of Baghdad / Alresafa 1 for the acadmic year ( 2015 – 2014 ) , The researcher has chosen intentionally the ( Al – khalej ) secondry
The sample fo the study consists of (60) students distributed equally between two groups . The researcher has equalized the variables ( aye counted by months , pervionscognative test , intilleyence ) .
The researcher has also used the statistical meuns like ( t – test ) for two dependent groups , qui squar , difficulty level .
The functirn of wrony alternatives , person coeerlatich coefficient , spermur – brown Alfa – lcrumbkh equation .

Judicial Methods to settle the international dispute

SinanTalib Abdul-Shaheed

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 25, Pages 391-432

We will try in the search highlight two of these means, namely, (international arbitration, international justice) as peaceful a means to resolve international disputes and judicial means essentially different from what was mentioned about other diplomatic means.
That the Peace is more than in the eyes of conscious life and role in it, and it was for the development of public international law a major role in achieving peace in the world because it tended to prevent war and to achieve international cooperation and represent it before everything is in working to confirm the need to resolve disputes by peaceful means, so the Charter of the United Nations text in articles (2 and 3, paragraph 3, paragraph 3) the need to resolve international disputes peacefully and also banned the article (2, paragraph 4) the use or threat of force as a means to resolve international disputes.
Accordingly These two remedies are two modern hub in the body of research, which will be Divides to talk about the first two sections of the international arbitration and the second in which I talk about international justice with the conclusion contains the most important results.

The renewal of the technical performance (formal and substantive) in Bishop Khalil hair

ImadSaleh al-Tamimi

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 25, Pages 433-454

Khalil Mutranwas the poet who established the modern school of Arabic poetry, the modernization school. He had a rich knowledge and open-mindedness. He grew up in cultural and intellectual that constituted a solid foundation for him to launch his liberal way of thinking and modernizing the Arabic poetry. He was highly influenced by the western literature, namely the French literature. The Bernasah, Classical, Symbolic, and mostly the Romantic literary schools influenced him. However, this influence was always governed by the authentic Arab litterateur. As a result, he restored the authenticity and vigor of the Arabic poetry especially when he sentiently and dauntlessly delved into analyzing the traditional Arabic literature. By doing so, he identified points of ingenuity and advocated for supporting them in what best suits the modern era. Accordingly, his modernization was the revival of the ancient literature. Again, various sources such as the authentic Arabian culture, mindful influence by the western culture, and the modern culture and its developments had come together in inventing the modernization school. Moreover, the poet’s deep personality and creative imagination and the psychological and intellectual habits led the poet to announce his new school of literature, which invaded the modern Arabic poetry changing its form, purport, style, imagery, rhymes and rhythms. Thus, this study aims at exploring the poet’s new literary school, the critics’ opinions in response to his modernizing hypothesis, and explicating the modernizing axes when it comes to the form and purport of the new Arabic poem

Lam- Time in the Qur'nic Grammar between the Grammarians and Explainers

Jinan Jasim Al-Beldawy

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 25, Pages 455-470

As no one of the Grammarians and the Interpreters has dedicated a study for the adverbial "for" to the extent that mentioning it in their books has almost vanished, the researcher sought to tackle this topic in the light of the Quranic context through the inference based on the sayings of the grammarians and and interpreters adding a new indication to "for" in addition to the existent ones. The research proved:
1- The lam in the studied Quranic texts is the time adverbial "for".
2- The time adverbial "for" is part of the prepositional for occurring in a certain time and meaning .
3- The closest meaning to the indication of Lam by circumstantial context in the studied texts is "after, at, before" but the more accurate use is related to ascription like when I say "after five days" or "for five days" .

Models For The Pragmatic Analysis Of Fallacy In Obama's Political Speeches

Fareed Hameed Al-Hindawi; Duaa Khrabit Fadhil Al-Awadi

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 25, Pages 9-46

Fallacy as a derailment of strategic maneuvering can be defined as the process of issuing a defective argument (when subjected to certain criteria) to support and strengthen a previously issued one for purposes of persuasion. However, fallacy is a broad topic that has been approached from different perspectives. Several studies have attempted to tackle fallacy pragmatically. Yet, those attempts have suffered from many gaps and drawbacks which have characterized them as insufficient accounts in this regard . Hence, this work has set itself the task of dealing with this problem through developing pragmatic models for the analysis of fallacy as far as its pragmatic structure, types and strategies are concerned. These models are built upon several models introduced by several scholars in addition to the observations made by the researchers themselves.
The validity of the developed models has been tested by means of analyzing sixteen fallacious situations taken from Barak Obama's war and electoral speeches. The analyses conducted have proved that the models developed are workable. Besides, they have yielded various results among which it has been concluded that fallacy is a process composed of various stages. Each stage is distinct for its pragmatic components and strategies.

The New Penelopean Poetics: A Feminist Reassessment of the Victimization of Women in Edna St. Vincent Millay’s ‘‘The Ballad of the Harp-Weaver’’ and ‘‘An Ancient Gesture’’

Areej Muhammad Jawad; Rana Jabir Obed

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 25, Pages 47-60

The Greeks have a certain authority, for they are the source of the Western traditions of poetry, philosophy, and science. The figure of Penelope in the Homeric epic can be seen as a symbol not only for woman’s trials in general but also for the trials of the woman artist in a man’s world. This study explores the penelopean myth as ideological tool of patriarchal system and it argues that gender stereotypes set in Greek myths have been recreated later by the modern American poet, Edna St. Vincent Millay. Encouraged by the feminist movement, Millay revised and rewrote the penelopean myth highlighting the gender stereotyping as an important feature in her poems, ‘‘The Ballad of the Harp-Weaver,’’ and ‘‘An Ancient Gesture.’’
The New Penelopean Poetics: A Feminist Reassessment of the Victimization of Women in Edna St. Vincent Millay’s ‘‘The Ballad of the Harp-Weaver’’ and ‘‘An Ancient Gesture’’
I, being born a woman and distressed
By all the needs and notions of my kind,
Am urged by your propinquity to find
Your person fair, and feel a certain zest.
Millay’s ‘‘I Being Born a Woman and Distressed,’’(from The Ballad of the Harp-Weaver, 1923).

Inefficacy of Language: A study in Beckett's Play –Waiting for Godot

Ghanim Obeyed Oteiwey

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 25, Pages 61-78

Language is what determines the regulated world, the signification of which provides the foundation of our culture, our activities and our relations. It defines our identity as a form of reassurance. It deals not only with the impossibilities of knowing the motivation of human beings, but also presents the problem of communication between human beings. Speech is, undoubtedly, the proof of existence as well as a manner of contending silence, solitude and death, and it is man’s unique heritage. Absurd dramatists’ use of language probes the limitations of language both as a means of communication and as an instrument of thought as there can be no definite meanings in a world deprived of values, principles and virtues. They have chosen to write in a language devoid of content to become the adequate representation of stagnant life; they present language as an inefficient tool to express one’s thought, to comprehend the world, or to define one’s self. So Samuel Beckett metalized the absurdity of modern life and human condition in his play. He displayed that with the advent of the twentieth century and its idiosyncrasies, the already taken-for-granted defined character has turn to the most passive of all, bewildered, disillusioned, alienated, dislocated, and purposeless. This creature may provide a new language, new ideas, new approaches, and a new vitalized philosophy to transform the modes of thought and feeling of the public at large in a not too distant future. The present paper aims to reveal the labyrinth of language since it is the symbol of human existence. So it is used here as a symbol of absurdity.
Key words: absurdity, existence, communication, inefficient,
deterioration, gestures.

A Pragma-stylistic Study of Humour inAhmed Matar's Poetry

Hussein Dhahi al-Hassnawi

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 25, Pages 79-92

This study aims to review and investigates the role and function of humourin Ahmed Matar's poetry pragma-stylistically. Furthermore, it attempts to identify the ways andstrategies in which he employs humour negatively. In a sense, he uses strategies of humour or joking so as tomock the socio-political situation in the case of Iraq. Thus, hecreates acceptability and sympathy on the part of the audience. The focus of this study is concerned with verbal mockery, which is produced by means of language or text. Additionally, the study postulates that there is no clear cut amongst humour types categories-that is the categories may interchange and merge in a few cases. Of the stylistic figures presented in this study is mockery,irony, exaggeration, comparison, and sarcasm.
Key Words: Pragmatics , mockery, sarcasm, exaggeration, humour.
0.Introduction
This study is an attempt to deal with strategies of humour in Ahmed's Matar poetry .Since pragmatics and stylistics are interrelated, especially, in poetry (Nofal, 2011) , it is required to deal with both discplines while approaching a poem.It is not unclear that the stylistic figures , which are employed in the corpus have got pragmatic implications .In this perspective, the current paper aims to find out how '' strategies of humour'' are reflected and manifested in Matar'spoetry.More specifically, the study aims at:
A.Showing the pragma-stylistic devices of humour, which are utilized by Ahmed Matar.
B.Evaluating the effect of such utilization.
C.Finding the most common strategies.
In view of the aforementioned aims, it is hypothesized that :
A.AhmedMatar heavily relies on strategies of humour to convey his message, the message of mockery and criticism;
B. he intentionally utilizes humour- he aims at, both, entertaining and mocking the public.
C. the most common strategies are : irony, exaggeration, and sarcasm
To accomplish the aims of the study and test its hypotheses, the following procedures are adopted :
A. Reviewing the literature on humour and pragmatics;
B.Developing a model for analysing the corpus;
C.Conducting a pragma-stylistic qualitative method of analysis of some randomly extracts chosen from Ahmed's Matar poetry;
D.Discussing the results of analysis, however the discussion is done within the analysis-that is no separate heading is dedicated for discussion. Finally,it is worth mentioning that the translation of the corpus is made by the theresearcher himself.

Iraqi EFL University Students' Awareness of Metonymy

Muayad Mingher Al-Shemmery

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 25, Pages 93-106

The present work is about metonymy as one of the lexical relations which exists between words on one aspect, and as a problematic area for students of English on the other. Hence it aims at measuring the students’ proficiency in using metonymy and identifying the types of errors and their sources in recognizing and producing metonymic concepts. To achieve these goals, the study has hypothesized that most Iraqi EFL students face difficulties in using them. Then, a test has been planned on a sample of (50) Iraqi EFL university students at the Fourth Year, Department of English, College of Education, University of Kufa during the academic year (2014-2015). The results obtained from collecting and analyzing the students’ performance confirm that the students encounter serious difficulty in this area. This clear from the number of their correct responses in comparison with their incorrect ones. Key words: Lexical Relation; Metonymy; Test; Data Analysis
1- Introduction