The Rhetoric Elision and its Effect in Creating the Rhetoric Image- Khalid Al-Katib's

Ali Kadhim Assad

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 27, Pages 11-36

This research tackled the textual Omission in the rhetoric image. The role of rhetoric is not just describing the texts and the methods of composing them, but it exceeds that to the conditions of creativity. The poet in the rhetoric creation is always in search for the tools to create a picture and he organizes those tools in a way that a relation is created that achieves the aims and transfers the feelings.
Omission is regarded as one of the elements of the deep structure of the rhetoric image. This is a sign of the fact that the elements of rhetoric that are omitted has a deep mental structure that keeps the cohesion of the whole image. Therefore, the omission expands the relation between the poet and the receiver.
It has been revealed the using omission increases the cohesion of the image for what it has of connection elements which underlies the contexts of the structures, because the existence of all the structures of the context affects the profoundness and effect. The receiver receives the meaning completely without any effort which makes the text lose the intensity which the creator searches for. Therefore the writer chose the feature of intensity to activate the mind of the receiver and to elevate the level of indication. The poet Khalid Al-Katib has used the omission to improve the meaning that he wants to send in a rhetoric image through artistic economy

Thermal Requirements and Determinants for Growing Fruit Trees

Dr.AbdulhasanMadfoon Abu Riheel; Abdulkadhim Ali Al-Hilu

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 27, Pages 37-70

and dispersal of plants and its growth, become its affect on its physiological of vital operation like photosynthesis, respiration and water absorption, each physiological process increase with rise in temperature till reaching the optimal degree and then starting to decrease. For each type or kind of this trees there is a minimum growth temperature known as zero temperature of growth at which the plant start to grow and step growing of bit decrease under this level. In the other hand for each kind there is a maximum growth temperature if exceeding it the trees stop growing and for each type of fruit trees is optimum growth temperature which lie between this upper and lower degrees

Religious trend in praise of the fifth century AH

Hakim Habeeb Al-Gureity; Mohammad ZahirAftan Al - Arda

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 27, Pages 71-100

The religious tendency in the fifth century of Hegira literature occupied a great deal of attention especially in poetry, praise in particular. The religious poetry is one of the highest styles of praise in the Arab heritage, it had spiritual features aimed to serve and defense the Islamic religion in sward and words, and that is exactly what Islam needs. Religious poetry expresses the Islamic values and morals represented by monotheism and believe in His almighty God, resurrection and in the prophet Mohammed (peace and prayer be upon him and his pure progeny).
The research attempts to perceive the poets` originality and perfection in praising the prophet Mohammed and his pure progeny as an example of the religious tendency at that century. It also attempts to show the pets` tendency to use the clear and non-sophisticated terms because the praised persons were abstained from the worldly life so they did not need such exaggeration.

Geomorphological Variations in Shat Al-Hilla from Al-Hindiyah Barrage until Al-Hilla City Center and its Role in the Human

KifahSalih Al-Asadi; ShadhaAbdulkareemJasim

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 27, Pages 101-126

This research studies the Geomorphologic Changes of Al-Hila River from Al- Hindiyah Barrage to Hilla City Center and their effect on the Human Activities from 1976 to 2010. It found that most of the river geomorphologic shapes(MeandersRivers and Rivers islands and Emanation of splays and Deposits Tongues) had witnessed clear geomorphologic changes during this period especially For the sedimentary changes , the islands in this area had affected to be merged with some banks, in the other direction of the same area we have new islands due to the decrease of the water level in the study area and the increase of the sediments, moreover the area had witnessed changes in the banks, as well as river course zigzag. The research also concluded that these river geomorphologic forms had effects on the different human activities such as settlement, irrigation, agriculture and transporting, at the same time, they could be used for tourism, and this emphasize the study hypothesis :- ( that Shat Al- Hilla " Al- Hilla River" had witnessedgeomorphologic changes that affect the different human uses).

The Regional Effects on the Iraqi External Policy Towards Turkey and Iran

Sauud Abdul Aziz Shaaban; Latif Kamil

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 27, Pages 127-160

Created variables strategy in the region in recent years , especially after the war on Iraq in 2003 , an area geopliically complex and entangled narrowing in the context of which the concerns of political system to the limits of geography in an attempt to keep the components and unity , but at the same time necessitated security requirements and the role and stature of those regimes stretching to regional space from historical conciderations and ideology are in the heart of the political and security doctrine for these systems , perhaps the area has become the scene of interventions pacific regional work on hitting the foundation of peaceful coexistence between his sons , which weakened the state , which has affected negatively onforeign policy .

Metonymic style of the Adjective in Balaghat Al-Nisaa by IbnTayfur

Khaleel Abdul Sada Ibraheem Al-Hilal; Zainab Abdullah Kadhim Al-Mousawi

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 27, Pages 161-184

Metonymy is one of the rhetorical styles that do not lead the receiver directly to the purpose, it arouse him by an idea and improve his meditation, so it occupies a distinguished status in the Arabic rhetoric, and an eloquent value relating the art of speech. Its concept is to speak about something and mean something else. Metonymy style gives the secondary meaning a kind of strength and to increases its significant value to be more effective and suggestive. It is not a real expression; its purpose is its semantic that suggests different meaning which is understood by the context. Metonymy for the adjective is declared by the described, yet by another adjective with another required attribute. Many of these are mentioned in Balaghat Al-Nisaa, where the researcher found that it participates in founding the relation between the creative text and the receiver due to the effects and emotions, that it creates for the receiver, where the usual language cannot depict.

Industrial Development and Regional Planning in Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf Governorate

AbdulsahibNaji Al-Baghdadi; Mohammed JawadShabaa

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 27, Pages 185-226

Industrial development of the most influential factor is the speed in comparison to other economic activities in the development of the developmental reality of the territory development, as it is one of the main pillars that are prominent in the aspects of the effects of development and regional planning also contribute to achieving the goals of an important strategy in the region.
Study Problem: Does the industry of great importance in regional development in the province of Najaf.
The study hypothesis: the weakness of the contribution of industry in regional development in the province of Najaf. And not distributed in a balanced manner in the province and can be developed and Alaatmadelleha in regional planning.
The study included three sections deal with the first part, the development of large industries, according to industrial activity standards highlighted the second topic on the big industries structure in the province, the third section the importance of large industries in regional development in the province, and the study concluded with a summary and recommendations with a map of the most important is possible to invest in industries within the administrative units in the province.

Expression Techniques in Poetic Images in Andalusia Cities Courtship

Ali Mohammed Hussein Al-Khalidi; AbadyAbdulabbasHimood Al-Zayadi

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 27, Pages 227-254

The research aims to clarify the aesthetic point, change it into image refers to the connection of the Andalusia Man, especially the poet, with his city which reflected on his connection with his great home “Andalusia”. It also aims to clarify the representation of that connection by love verses that had not been put to show the poet`s to a woman, rather they were to show love or emotion status of the poet with his home and city. This motivates us to deal with the poetic image and the way of expressing it by the Andalusia poet in this research which includes an introduction, four topics and a conclusion. The introduction studies the connection of the human feelings with the surrounding images. The first topic deals with the poetic verses that have similes in the love poems of the Andalusia Cities. The second topic studies the significances of the metaphoric images in love poems of the Andalusia Cities. The third topic is devoted to pun verses in love poems of the Andalusia Cities, while the fourth topic analyzed rhetoric images in Love poems of the Andalusia Cities. The conclusion includes the most important results of the research

Sanusi Mission in Birqah 1837-1859 Comparative Historic Study

Jasim Mohammed Shatab

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 27, Pages 255-318

This research had deal around Sanusian Organization and its appearance factors, because it was reformative Islamic movement, had attached firmly with the life of its establisher Mohammed Bin Ali Al-Sanusi , his lineage , his juristic learning, and his jihad or struggle for establish his movement, and the reasons which was attached it with Cyrenaica . The researcher had taken up in his research to more important principles of this movement and its relations with another movements and Islamic faiths, particularly Wahhabi Movement , and had taken up in his research also Al-Zawaya ( small mosques)of Sanusian Order system , as it was construction units Sanusian Social from All sides , economically, socially , religiously ,and politically .the researcher had deal also to a Sanusian brothers(Al-Ekhwan) ,them origins , the ranks in the order , and the role which were carried for consolidation the Sanusian organization, spread its ideas , and defeat away from its principles .

The Secondary Education in Iraq 1968-1979

Mohammed JawadJasim Al-Jazaeri

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 27, Pages 337-376

The secondary education in Iraq is usually known as the school stage of public education which is limited between primary education and higher education, and secondary education aims to achieve the scientific, professional and social competence of students in their life, or follow their higher studies in universities, also the secondary education provides the opportunity to discover their abilities and interests and developing them.
Secondary school is divided into two parts: the first part is the intermediate school which is confined to prepare students to receive much wider informations than that obtained in the primary school. While the second part is the preparatory school in which the students begin to specialize in one of two sections either scientific or literary, then the graduated student have the right to join the Iraqi universities.
It should be noted that there are numbers of preparatory schools form the fourth stage to sixth stage, and at the same time, there are secondary schools which include both intermediate and preparatory stages.
The fourth preparatory stage in the secondary schools represent the start point for preparatory stage which provides students to join colleges with different specializations in scientific and humanitarian fields, especially in medical, engineering and scientific studies

Development Capabilities of Sustainable Tourist Planning in Holy Shrines' Cities –Al-Kadimiyah City- Case Study

Suhaed; KadhimAbd Al-Mousawi; Ahmed Abdulsalam Al-Jabiri

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 27, Pages 377-402

The holy shrines Cities are considered of tourist areas, the mission in Iraq , which derives its fame and prestige of its religious and in the heart of ancient cities .It was the scene of the holycitiesofpainfulhistorical events earningthem the importance andprivacydistinguished it fromothertypesof tourism.
It is commonly known as, the development of tourism in any regionorprovincedepends on theeaseorAccessibilityto it and to maketourismplay an important role inthe planning and developmentmustexploitthe tourism potential and put evolutionaryplans and proposals for thearea in order to revivethetouristmovementofreligiousandmaximizetheirimportance And attract more tourists from various types and through the stand on the strengths and weaknesses and work on tourism guide in the right direction without negative impacts from here came the importance of research

Geographical Analysis of Thermal Extremism Phenomena and Hot Waves in Al-Najaf Governorat

NajahAbd Jabir Al-Jibouri

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 27, Pages 403-420

Received the face of repeated thermal extremism and heat waves great importanc in climate studies because of their effect great on different aspects of life as it is the thermal elemant of the most important climatic factors important in determining the current general climate andMaaeksh that the impact on systems Albaaloger of the living plant it and fauna as well as activities Urban, which is being handied by human and give a detailed picture of the situation thermal in general and the statement of cases of heat extremism and volatility that you get from time to time and perhaps during the day and in spite of the face that maintaining a climat characterized by high temperatues rates during the hot season of the year as temperatures rise in some more days rates of normal and that due to local fators and regional as nahth Najaf recorded climatic degree dialogue reached (51.4 m)

Opponents of Philosophy are Philosophers- Al-Ghazali as an example

Mohammed Habeeb Al-Khateeb

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 27, Pages 421-464

The title of the topic : ( Adversaries of philosophy is philosophers , Al - ghasali model , )
Most of researchers consider Al – ghasali model is one of Islamic philosophers , despite they have been fonght and stood agamst of them by himself in his book , is talked abont philosophical drift . It this called , Tahaft of philosophers ,. In this book , he has attacked and made them out of Islam , in three issues , he has shown in his book . in the light of what we have had , threr is a guestion about why he has been considered as aphilosopher , despite his directions agmmst the thonghts about him to make his directions into philosophy

Al-Hilla During Al-Mmamleek 1749-1831 A.D (A study on Political

Ali KamilHamza Al-Sarhan

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 27, Pages 465-516

not the date the Mamluk-era political Hilla studies researchers and academics, as many stages which are still shrouded in mystery and neglect, perhaps because of the difficult terrain can be traced to the search, because of the scarcity of documents, multiple languages, primary sources, and this is a study of mildly important stage is the stage of conflict between residents and local Government installed by the Baghdad Government, the gap between the rulers and the people, The State effort in the development of the city and offer commensurate with its political and economic status, geographical location and military excellence.
Iraq has witnessed in the late eighteenth century and early nineteenth centuries a serious political represent the emergence of the Wahhabi movement and its threat to the Ottoman Empire, and the Mamluk Government in Iraq in particular, has been a force hostile new burdened her new burden was above the burden of external and internal.
One of the political scene in that period, Wahhabi incursions on the Iraqi cities like Karbala, Najaf and Hillah and others, which were each year, And we will examine the Mamluk era Hilla through three detectives, turn in the first episode of Hilla in the Mamluk era, and in section second illustrate tribal movements in the era of Dawood Pasha, and in section third highlight the Persian position under the Mamluks ornament revolutions.

Visualization and Believing in Islamic Logic- Analytic Study-

Marwan Ali Hussein Ameen

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 27, Pages 517-532

Introduce the speech about the need of logic and make it clear by shakh " Ibncina" by saying (In logic sciencelearn by it how to move from things happened in human being mind to a getting things) .
Logic vouches either putting rules for right continuation of the information which exited in human mind to the wanted unknown , the work of logic is about the existing of mind , in another words the getting science , and when we know the dichotomizing of the getting science to the imagination and believing , that is mean that there is unknown imagination and believing unknown.
We seek to know (as it mentioned in second meaning) , and the unknown imagination is about now to reach to know leg through the knowing imagination , no never . it is about it is connect to unknown imagination , and the unknown believing is about now to reach to know through the believing science , no never, it is about it is reached to unknown believing and this chapter called evidence or the cases chapter.
These two chapters forming the subject of logic , form here we know the importance and relationship of imagination and believing in logic and it is subject , from here this chapter was represent stops deserve the searcher to stop in it , we hope that we did good in it .


Abdullah Najim Al-Khanaifsawy

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 27, Pages 11-30

This study investigates Iraqi EFL university learners’ use of the speech act of agreement at the pragmatic level. Additionally, the present study analyzes the productive level of the learners’ use of agreement.The study basically aims at analysing the speech act of agreement at the pragmatic level. It also aims at investigating the most common strategies used by Iraqi EFL learners to issue communicative acts of agreement at the productive level.The study hypothesizes that (1) the students’ performance of the direct strategies for showing agreement is better than the indirect onesat the productive level, and (2) the students’ performance of the explicit performative strategies for showing agreement is better than the implicit ones. To achieve the aims of the study and verify or refute its hypotheses, a sample of twenty Iraqi EFL learners from fourth year-stage in the Department of English Language, College of Education, University of Al-Qadisiya during the academic year (2014-2015) is randomly chosen to answer a questionnaire which consists of twenty different interactional situations requiring from the subjects to respond with agreement.
The study verifies the hypotheses and yields that (1) a percentage of (92%) goes to the direct strategies for showing agreement ,whereas (8%) goes to the indirect ones, (2) a percentage of (67%) goes to the learners’ use of explicit performatives for showing agreement ,whereas only (33%) goes to the learners’ use of the implicit ones. So, the study concludes the poor use of indirect strategies and implicit performativesfor showing agreement compared to the direct strategies and the explicit performatives by the Iraqi EFL learners.