Place distribution for air contaminant in Al-Hilla city

Abed H.Madfon; Hashem M. Jaber

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 29, Pages 11-38

This research aims to study the spatial distribution of some air pollutants in the city of Hilla, which include dust falling and sticking minutes and heavy elements (lead , nickel , cadmium , copper , iron) and hydrocarbons research found : -
1. Research has shown that higher concentrations of dust falling spatially Bakrla was in the neighborhood where the rate was ( 184.69) mg /m2 .
2. The research found that the highest concentration of spatially minutes was outstanding in the Sadr City district where the rate was ( 439.75 ) mg/ m 3 .
3. that the highest concentration of lead in the dust falling spatially military was in the neighborhood where the average ( 17.36) mg /m 2
4. The concentration of lead in the opening minutes was outstanding spatially in Sadr City where the rate was ( 17.40 ) mg / m 3 .
5. Research has shown that the highest concentration of nickel in the dust falling spatially was in the neighborhood where the chest was ( 24.22 ) mg / m 2 .
6. The highest concentration of nickel in the minutes spatially unresolved was rare in the neighborhood where the rate was ( 11.97 ) mg / m 3 .
7. The highest concentration of cadmium in the dust falling spatially in the neighborhood was in the military , while the rate was ( 23.08 ) mg / m 2 .
8. The highest concentration of cadmium in the minutes spatially unresolved was rare in the neighborhood where the average ( 15.68 ) mg / m 3 .
9. research indicates that the concentrations of iron in dust was falling spatially in Sadr City where the rate was ( 50.17 ) mg / m 2 .
10. The highest concentrations of iron in the minutes was outstanding in a rare spatially where the rate was ( 765.25 ) mg / m 3 .
11. Research shows higher concentrations of dust falling in Hidocarbonat spatially was rare in the neighborhood where the average ( 389.91 ) mg / m 2 , while the concentrations in the minutes was outstanding in the neighborhood also rare where the rate ( 3.81 ) mg / m 3 .

Geographic distribution for ruralstable in EstrenHamza city and Alshanafya

Wahab f. Al-Yasery; Majeed Hameed Shihab; Hatf L. Al-Jebory

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 29, Pages 39-70

The research aimstodetectPhotosgeographical distribution ofMstaqratruralin the study areawere dividedintosize distributionand thedistributionAlkthafaforMstaqratas well asdetectpatterns ofgeographic distribution ofMstaqratrural andtheir concentration their spreadand to knowthe extent ofthe impact ofgeographic factors(natural and human) To achieve this,been usedquantitative methodswhichlogarithmicconversiontechniquein the classificationcategoriesandvolumetricAlkthafahpresumptionneighborandclosestto detectdistributionalpatternsforthe development of plansand the development ofruralsettlements served. It wasthe use oftechnology(GIS)in the measurement ofdistancesbased onsatellite imagesof the study areaas well as inmapping.
Theresearch has cometoa set ofconclusions, includingthatof thegeographical factorsof natural and humanroleinthe emergence offivemattressesvolumetricPopulation andprivatetransportation routesand water resourcesandfertile soilas well as thedistance factorbetweensettlements servedand urban centersand theservices available tothem, as well as their impact on thegeographical distribution of thedensity ofsettlements servedrural, which led to thepresence ofthree categoriesKthafahforMstaqratrural andreasonin the presence ofthese groupsis the number ofsettlements servedin each countyandcapacityareaandthe ownership ofthe land andnear thesettlements servedruralfromurban centersand water sources, and the emergence ofthreepatterns ofdistributiveMstaqratruralin the study areaandthese patternsvary depending on thegeographical factorsof natural and human, and these patternsarescatteredpattern(symmetric) andaccumulatedpattern(convergent) andscatterpattern(random) andwasthecause ofgeographicalfactorsinthe emergence ofthese patternsandthedistribution ofthe currentnegative resultsrelated tothe difficulty ofprovidingbasic servicesto the generalMstaqratstudy area.

Diagrammaticperformance and his artisticeffect in Holy Quran (patronymicutterance example)

Aqeel A. Mebder; Rasha J. Sadeq

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 29, Pages 71-82

IT was Known among people, and among their midst a proverbial phrases, taken from Ayat of the Quran or parts of Ayat, it was made as a proverbs used in argument and persuasion and influence the other, on condition that conform to the event which used to represent ,and not leads to fragmentation of the text or the dismantling of its objectivity or the Quran text utilization be away from the event which is used for, so that ,this wrong utilization makes the Quran phrase subject of fun or detract from the sanctity of miraculous text.
The phrases that used as a proverbs are many in the Quran, and it's use is subject to several factors, and the most important is the Cultural and knowledge level of the speaker, and the extent of his ability to call the Quran term inventory that he has, and how to display the word used as an example, in an understood manner to the recipient
The modalities of expression of these phrases were different, the performance of statement has a largest share in the proverbial expression, particularly the metonymy expression , it can be divided by the representation into three types:
1. Metonymy from names of well-known or famous people.
2. Stories and News.
3. Artistic metonymy portrayal.

Contentwhispering in preceptglass for Imam Jafar Ben Mohammed Al-Sadeq

Somya H. Hassalyan; RooyaKmaly

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 29, Pages 83-114

Advice or will is considered as the most significant literary skills and training methods; it is wisdom and experience treasure. Since, Pedagogy as the main map of human personality and a way toward a healthy society; it covers a vast domain of advice concept. Regarding its significance, religious heritage such as Mohammad Prophet and our Imams tradition (sonat) is not poor regarding such concepts. As an instance, Imam Jafar al Sadigh advices.
This paper studies pedagogic concepts based on Imam al Sadigh trainings and based on presenting some samples in “ Prophet and Imams’ Advices” by Seyed Hashem Rasouli Mahalati” in a analytic and descriptive method; its scope is divided into three distinct categories.
During the discussion, it is clear that Imam Al-Sadegh advices are derived from Quran and Prophet’s words and they stand on pedagogic pivots. Imam defines these advices as ways of human’s return to his own nature. Imam Sadegh as a great instructor of humanity makes benefit of various methods for teaching pedagogic concepts and Indeed, as a wise man who is a master of aesthetics gives brightness to his own words; he dies them in colors of literary meaning and beauty in order to help audience in enjoying and influencing others.
Key words : Imam Al-Sadigh , Advices and will , pedagogy , Training , Faith , Ethics

Water Harvest and his effect in development water resource in Iraq

Nada S. Jawdet; Sadya A. Mankhe; Falah H. Shanon

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 29, Pages 115-152

The technology of water harvesting in Iraq is of great significance because of its role in aquatic and agricultural resources development and provision of water for various uses because of the suffering of Iraq's climatic conditions, semi-arid and low rainfall and the fluctuation of the crash between the years as well as the high temperatures, which lead to higher evaporation, note that about half of the area of Iraq is a desert land suffering from water scarcity, it has applied technology of water harvesting in Iraq in several ways more common these means the establishment of dams and reservoirs on rivers and valleys in various parts of Iraq, especially the desert areas. Water harvesting technology is facing in Iraq, some of the obstacles and problems such as natural barriers, regulatory and administrative barriers and financing obstacles

Employmentrendezvous in produce studying expression in Imam Al-Baqer transmitted

Mohammed S. Najem

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 29, Pages 153-186

Cognitive research of different backgrounds have produced a system of moral dimensions of a great understanding through contextual style that engages the receiver, that vital and effective and influential element in the text always.The issue of receipt of the issues that mimic the context of different themes pre-production and beyond, and never pursued the text to distinguish between different types of text, to lead a critical role to that text in addition to the aesthetic role. While we follow it until we stop the text of Imam Baqir peace that was ripe complete and employees main employers a level of refined it, we tried through this study show that features as much as possible during the reception provided to those who work with this type of textual studies Sensors, we presented a method and offered method it to produce we discuss the implications simulates the texts of Imam peace be upon him extent structural and aesthetic possible.

Al-Sonoseactivity in Africa by British Secret report publish in 1908

Fleh H. Ali; Yasen S. Shokre

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 29, Pages 187-212

This research is a study in un published British secret report issued in 1908 about the history of Senussiism and it's relations with local and international powers during 19th and the beginning of 20th centuries it is mainly consist from many British military reports.
The information's in this report is very important because it issued from Britain , the side which had political , military and strategic aims in north and inside Africa, and the attendance of a local power, the senussiism, which put out it's thought and gained followers in wide places from north and inside Africa , made it a competitor power and in face with European colonialism greediness in these, specially France ,Italy and Britain , and it worked by using many ways to face and stop against the French in Kanum , Wadai in north-east Tchad during the period between 1901-1907 which the report explained .

High Quran example in process society Wrong ,Al-Tauba Example ﭽ ﯥ ﯦ ﯧ ﯨ ﯩ ﯪ ﯫﯬﭼ

Salman B. Alkhafagy

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 29, Pages 213-260

خلص البحث إلى تعريف شافٍ وكافٍ للخطيئة لغة واصطلاحاً وتطبيقاً للفروق اللغوية والمصطلحية لهذا المفهوم،واستقصى هذا المفهوم عند علماء الدين والمربين والفلاسفة والنفسانيين،وقف على رؤاهم في المعالجات التي رأوها للخطيئة حسب اختصاصاتهم. ثم عرج البحث على القرآن المجيد ليقف على مصاديق مفهوم الخطيئة فيه،وتصدى لدراسة موضوعة البحث المحددة وهي سورة التوبة(البراءة) فعرض لأسمائها وأسباب نزولها وطبيعتها التربوية العلاجية للأمراض الاجتماعية التي تنخر جسد المجتمعات الإنسانية وتكاد تؤدي بها. فدقق البحث في تفاصيل أنماط الخطيئة كما وردت في الذكر الحكيم وبالذات في هذه السورة المباركة والتي قسمت وفق معايير خمسة: الكمي،النوعي،الجوهري،البيني،التوبة.
وتصنيفاتها التي بلغت احد عشر معياراً،فعرض لها البحث مستشهداً بمصاديق لها في الذكر الحكيم وخاصة في سورة التوبة. وبعدها شخص البحث المعالجات التي حددتها السماء لتخليص الإنسانية من هذا الداء الوبيل فحددتها بصنفين: المعالجات التشريعية تقنينية متقدمة ومعالجات إجرائية رادعة وكلا الصنفين توزعت على محورين: وقائية معنوية أو مادية واستشفائية علاجية وهذا الصنف تنوع على النحو الآتي:
معالجات معنوية ـ ربانية ـ روحانية ـ ومعالجات تربوية إنسانية وثالثة: إجرائية سلوكية وكانت استشهادات قرآنية عامة وهي الأقل وخاصة من سورة التوبة المباركة وهي الأكثر والأدق،آملين أن نكون قد وفقنا إلى وضع الأمور في نصابها العلمي الدقيق،وإذا أخطأنا فكل ابن آدم خطاء وخير الخطائين التوابون،فعذراّ وألف العذر إلى الله سبحانه وتعالى ونبيه الكريم وأهل بيته الميامين صلوات الله عليهم وسلامه أجمعين والحمد لله رب العالمين

Title of Research and her rephrase

Sttar A. Jasem

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 29, Pages 261-274

Selecting and forming the titles are of the important stages of research writing in all science fields especially humanities. So it had been selected to be the subject of this research. Moreover there is an argent need that involves the academic researcher to deal with this subject to reveal the essence of the title as an attempt to participate in developing the method of the academic scientific research.
The research throw light on different topics to comprehend the study subject. These topics could be summarized as following:-
First:- the title concept in language and tradition.
Second:- title importance.
Third:- title aspect.
Fourth:- titles types.
Fifth:- main title effect on parts addressing.
Sixth:- Suggestion and recommendations.
It is necessary to say that there is an interaction among these topics; they represent one structure which is the title, yet the research necessary involves this division and detail.

EtiquetteFiguration for Alzamagshare between inarticulate and exegesis

Amal h. Hassan

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 29, Pages 275-326

I was able to (jar Allah Mahmoud bin Omar zamakhshari) to sketch dimensions integrated metaphor Quran, was right – it – a pioneer of the pioneers of the stage rooting for this milestone landmarks Rhetolo Koranic and characterized the leadership of these and originality that he was able to conduct depth metaphor in general and metaphor Quranicparticularyexpressivein that all intelligent Mtoved and versatility linguistic rare because it was executed artistic sense was in his dictionary (based on rhetoric ) world Encylopedic meditator reportedly about Arabs connotations of real and metaphorical gathering where between eloquence copositions and Dzaltha was studied in (the basis of rhetoric ) for licensed puplic without resorthing to subdivisions and if he so wanted to reveal the evolution of the phenomenon metaphorical significance until the sixth century AH.
As explaned (Scout) has analyzed the Koranic verses metaphorical sibnificance analysis reveals the mentality of a scientific view the collection owner between Koranic assets and heritage of the old Arab was little each metaphor contained in the Quranicverce ilk and his peers from the Arab heritage poetry and prose and so came the concept of metaphor has a term integrated him subdivisions has ties that gleaned from the analysis of the Quranic verses and they are received in the Arab heritage, taking advantage of studies who preceded him in this regard in particular the efforts of Shelkh Abdul jarjaani which at thet but inadvertently to reveal the evolution of the significance of the individual and the extent of affected space and time down to the stability in the sixth century Hijri and this second steps laid down in his study of the evolution of semantic. 7

The live of imam Ali from his Role Until his martyrdom in orientalism research (Danoladsan) example

Ali Z. Hashem

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 29, Pages 327-356

The British orientalist Dwight M. Donaldson consider one of whom compose a serious study about the Twelve Imams (peace be upon them) and the history of Shiism and his book that entitled (the Shiite Religion) consider one of the early Orientalist and general studies about life history and biography of Twelve Imams (peace be upon them) and one of the studies in the historical geographiy of their shrines in the first half of the twentieth century. He approached in the last chapters of his book to the history of Shiism in the fourth century A.H. and definitly he studied the Bouids state Then he talked about beginning of Hadith collecting by shia Then he approached quickly to history of the theological knowledges and Ijtihad near the Imamiyahshia from the fall of the Bouids state until the Safavid period. Then he wrote on parts of shia ideology like al-Ismah, al-Shafa'a, … anf finally he talked about some of other shiagroupes like Ismailiyah, Baabism and Baha'i.
And about the life and biography of Imam Ali (peace be upon him) he has been allocated four chapters for this purpose, and he described his holy tomb in Najaf in Chapter five, and we can appended this chapter to those that discussed everything related about Imam Ali's life and biography.
In this research, we decided criticze his most prominent statements in chapter three, which is the relation between Imam Ali (p.b.u.h.) and Ms. Ayesha the wife of the Prophet (peace be upon him and his Descendants) and what were marred of dispute. We also discussed what he claimed that Imam Ali (p.b.u.h.) was not know what he do when lined the two armies in al-Jamal war. And that the killers of Uthman were in his army, perhaps he (p.b.u.h.) is one of them, according to Donaldson's claim, and we will see how he (p.b.u.h.) carried the burden of climbing Othman's house, and he killed by the audience of companions and the influential people (ahlul-hilliwal-aqd) in the various Islamic cities who refuse his arbitrary policies against their interests and a curruptgroupe of governors that he had sent to rule on their cities, most of them were his relatives. Briefly, after responding to Donaldson's statements, we will see how this orientalist violates the truth and resorted to falsehoods towards the bright biography of Imam Ali (peace be upon him), depending on the reports of his Umayyad and Abbasid enemies, who transferred it in the sources

Al-Sayab Book religion soul doubt feels

Basher A. Zaied

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 29, Pages 357-382

These are some of the literary ironies that I've found in the poems of Al-Asfar. Content that the poet returns after an absence to God complaining obedient went mercy of salvation, and ask about everything happened in past life and future, and sees a life did not give it a chance, and he lost everything goes back joy in God, knowing his ability, making all coming from him good should not be to challenge it, but he turned in the piece to safer Hebrew not to the Quranic text, as found in the piece proof question cryptic poet direction of God, as the Sayyab in each of his poems was inspired by the myths and symbols of existential, and did not mention God for veneration and recognition and sanctification, but a little bit, and that is not a defect in the innate belief in the poet, but it is not feasible to leave experienced by the poet in his life was finished vacillated between docile and surrender, and between denial and objection as especially when he sees the manifestation of destitution, hunger and poverty in the faces of the wretched of human beings.
In these poems called travel-although norms clear where, elicit the reader of this dialogue, the drama between the poet and his Lord, this feeling which is similar to the feeling of a mystic, as it seems the poet at the top of its association with God and quite simply very dialogued dialogue surrendered to destiny and fate, but he tries to touch this fate and destiny meaning that after his grandfather and widespread disease in humans and death, this is the dialogue after the delivery of knowledge, and refraction after breakfast in the objection.
On the other hand, the launch label travel on more than one poem to him causes at the level of the subject, and at the level of art, Valsiab was taking too much from the treasury of cultural in his hair, and as well as pictures brilliant, meaning brilliant, and the music is magnificent innovative had been monitoring his reading the meanings of his hair and Dvha remarkably, this is evident in the travel agreement intellectual, emotional and cultural awareness among the components of the poet to produce poetic text us a lot of cash to speak fruitful

Doorsill and imaginary speech in Modren Arabic Stor


Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 29, Pages 383-418

يقارب البحث مستويات تشكل خطاب المتخيل ضمن شبكة العلاقات الداخلية والخارجية في المتن الروائي، وذلك بالوقوف عند مجموع اللواحق المدعِمة لنسيج النص الروائي العربي المعاصر؛ على اعتبار أن هاته اللواحق والنصوص الموازية هي خطابات مضمَرة تارة ومعلنَة تارة أخرى؛ تساهم في تأسيس نوع من وسائط المثاقفة الضمنية والرؤى العرفانية على أساس أن الخطاب الروائي المعاصر في تقديري هو خطاب نخبوي يتوجه نحو البحث في كيفيات التلقي والتأويل، حين تصل النصوص الموازية إلى تحقيق مجموعة من المخرجات الجمالية والبلاغية والأيديولوجية المدرَكة بفعل القراءة والتلقي عند الأنتليجنسيا.
تتجلى أهمية البحث في مقاربة الخطاب الروائي العربي المعاصر من زاوية مختلفة تماما عن تلك المقاربات التي ألفتها الذوقية التقليدية من جهة، وركنَ إليها القارئ العربي من جهة أخرى. فلقد أضحى خطاب المتخيل الخطاب الأسمى في مكاشفة الذات تجاه الآخر ضمن سلسلة الإحالات النصية الداخلية والخارجية التي ينحتها المبدِع، وسعى إلى ادراكها المتلقي بفعل مجموعة موجَهَات بنيوية وسيميائية، فرضت حضورها كآلية قراءة و تلقي. وعليه يهدف البحث إلى:
 تَمثُل بينة العتبات النصية ضمن الخطاب الروائي
 مكاشفة مستويات خطاب المتخيل في رواية ما بعد الحداثة
 الكشف عن هاته التمظهرات في نماذج روائية عربية منتقاة؛ تمثل في تقديري أنموذج الميتارواية العربية.
كما يطرح البحث تساؤلات منهجية ومعرفية معا، يدركها المتلقي في المتن مفصّلَة ومستدل عليها، منها:
كيف تتمثل رواية ما بعد الحداثة العربية أدوات كتابتها؟
 هل تتعدد الخطابات في المتن الواحد بتعدد أدوات الكتابة؟ وهل هذه الأدوات حكر على النخبة من الأنتليجنسيا؟
 هل أضحى خطاب العتبات خطاب تجليات أم خطاب عَتَمات في ظل فوضي التلقي والتأويل؟
 هل ساهمت تلك الخطابات في رفد الرواية العربية عالميا، أم أنها ساهمت في خلق فجوة إدراك معرفي؟

Police weman and the facing modification field research

Taleb A. Qetan

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 29, Pages 419-458

The police work is dangerous jobs because of its importance and the nature and objectives, and requires the employees possess the capabilities and special skills can not be achieved unless women were locked work you do and you feel satisfaction and encourage the work of the community, and the opposite of women exposed to foil many pressures in work, which affects the satisfaction with the work due to lack of sense of psychological comfort, which in turn affects her family. . From this vision has prepared the present study was to shed light on the extent to which a belief among the female element to the police, in terms of satisfaction with work and career level, and satisfaction with salary and career advantages. The problem of women's work in the field of police is society and not the whole of society and therefore do not disclose their work and may not exceed their work area only meters in cages is a prisoners is convinced the work Icomn him, and aims the current search to display an image for girls trends to a new field is the field of police as one of the trends that emphasizes women's liberation and knowledge of trends for this area and why and how successful This experiment The importance of the research, is the importance of experience, especially when the timing of the period can be difficult to volunteer at the Internal Security Forces, especially if associate of this work have been subjected to very large sacrifices by terrorism and some anti-democratic experience in Iraq elements after 2003, use Researcher descriptive approach, and the case study method and the method of social survey, and included a sample search on 45 affiliate of the officers and women police officers and all ranks, as well as field study included a questionnaire form consisting of 20 Sala, upping some open questions. The study came out a set of findings and recommendations

Management control in Imam Ali Government

Hanaa S. Jabar

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 29, Pages 459-494

That the state called on that the human control on three important reign to make normalcy and contiguity: it is executive control it make and take domineeringness, and legislative control that make roles and legal control that make lows, so the state important the control management have very important and effective to keep economic source for state and keep the right of people from attack and it effective way to publish the national produce to people in good way:
Islam is region for allah and make good things between people in two branch:
First: ideology and worship management relationship between human and allah.
Second: treatment control the relationship between human and his brother in economy, society, political and all rule, flexible low, the islamic state have an aim that the state control the relationship between human and his brother and enter in islamic handling.
The important reasons that make me to choose this subject the low knowledge of people in islamic government and control and i want to research in primary source and modern reference to have special result in this research.

A Phonological Study of Rhythm in Thomas Gray’s Poetry

Freed H. Al-Hindawi; Hussein DhahiMuzhir

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 29, Pages 11-22

This paper deals with a phonological analysis of rhythm in Thomas Gray’s poetry. As such, the current study attempts to answer the following questions: a. what are the rhythmic patterns in Thomas Gray’s poetry? b. what is the role of rhythm in the construction of the poetic value in Thomas Gray’s poetry? Accordingly, this study aims to (1) identify the rhythmic patterns in Thomas Gray’s poetry; and (2) explicate the role of rhythm in the construction of the poetic value in Thomas Gray’s poetry. To achieve the aims of the study, the following procedures are adopted: a.reviewing literature on rhythm in phonological and poetic studies; b.using a model developed by this study to analyze the data under scrutiny which are represented by two poems randomly selected from Thomas Gray’s ones. It has been concluded that rhythm in Gray’s poetry is characterized by variation and effectiveness since it is not limited to one metering flow of feet. Additionally, deviations of stress in poetic rhythm are related to the general theme of the poem and the literary objective of the poet himself. This reflects changes in the mood of the poem.



Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 29, Pages 23-52

This study deals with strategic maneuvering in selected political interviews from the pragmatic point of view represented by two interviews with: Cheney and Obama. It falls in five sections; section one is an introduction, section two provides a literature review on strategic maneuvering and the related pragmatic theories to the current study, section three is to develop a model for the process of strategic maneuvering analysis, section four is about the analysis of the data, and section five sums up the conclusions. The study attempts to investigate strategic maneuvering strategies and stages. To achieve such aims, a model is developed for the analysis of strategic maneuvering in the selected political interviews. The findings of the analysis verify the hypotheses represented by the process of strategic maneuvering stages, and strategies in the two selected political interviews

The Role of Using Lexical Bundles onthe Development of Proficiency of Iraqi EFL University Students

Ali Abdul IlahGhani

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 29, Pages 53-70

It has been observed that vocabulary constitute an essential factor in foreign language learning. Learners of English language need to have command of a wide range of complex lexical units which are prefabricated as chunks of arranged patterns of phrases and words.
Biber, et al.(1999:991-992) define lexical bundles as '' recurrent expressions or sequences of three or more word forms that commonly go together in natural discourse''. They(ibid) add that ''lexical bundles can be regarded as building blocks that tend to be used frequently by different speakers in different situations''.They are retrieved and reprocessed as whole units which may not only enhance the accuracy and fluency of language, but also speed up language processing significantly.
The present study deals with the investigation of the role of teaching lexical bundles in the development of Iraqi EFL proficiency in the Department of English, Faculty of Arts, University of Kufa. The most important purpose of lexical bundles is creating discourse coherence which helps students tocommunicate and practice language with effective and successful facilities. The study attempts to answer the following questions:
1) Is the use of lexical bundles necessary and effective in enhancing and developing of Iraqi EFL?
2) What is the difference between students who are unaware and unfamiliar with the use of lexical bundles and those who are familiar and able to identify them?
The sample of the test consists of two types of questions (fill in the blanks 'production' and multiple choices 'recognition' ) and 40 students are selected randomly at the mentioned department. The participants are divided into two groups , each group with 20 students. The first group who are not aware how to use lexical bundles constructed the pre-test exam and the second group with 20 students done the post-test exam who are well constructed with the experience and knowledge of learning lexical bundles.
The findings of the analysis have shown that students(pre-test) at the level of production score high and low rates concerning noun phrase based bundles. Whereas at the level of recognition students face difficulty in the recognition of clauses. Here, phrases are recognized more than clause are. The post-test which is concerned with those students who have attended lexical bundles classes shows high rates of correct answers in the use of noun phrase, verb phrase, preposition phrase and it cleft clause at the level of production and recognition. Therefore, learning such multi word expressions can contribute to gaining effective proficiency in language communication and competence