Probability and statistics problem for Karnib( An analutic study in ( the philosophical bases of physics)

emah Mohammed Ibraheem; Hayder Abdul-Zahra Reheem

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 30, Pages 11-38

The employment of the relationship between probability and statistics has a manifestation that is seen in the logic of induction theory, and it also has a similar important function in philosophy and sports studies and other related studies the philosophy of science. In this paper, it is observed that there is an importance in the statistical probability as the culmination of this theory of probability and its related statistics and their studies. As such, the logico-inductive approach is of value in relation to philosophical studies and the philosophy of logic and science. Thus, this article discusses the relation between the early Wittgenstein’s and Carnap’s philosophies of logic, arguing that Carnap’s position in The Logical Syntax of Language is in certain respects much closer to the Tractatus than has been recognized. In Carnapian terms, the Tractatus’ goal is to introduce, by means of quasi-syntactical sentences, syntactical principles and concepts to be used in philosophical clarification in the formal mode. A distinction between the material and formal mode is therefore already part of the Tractatus’ view, and its method for introducing syntactical concepts and principles should be entirely acceptable for Carnap by his own criteria. Moreover, despite the Tractatus’ rejection of syntactical statements, there is an important correspondence between Wittgenstein’s saying-showing distinction and Carnap’s object-language-syntax-language distinction: both constitute a distinction between logico-syntactical determinations concerning language and language as determined or described by those determinations. Wittgenstein’s distinction therefore constitutes a precursor of the object-language syntax-language distinction which the latter in a certain sense affirms, rather than simply contradicting it. The saying-showing distinction agrees with Carnap’s position also in marking logic as something that isn’t true/false about either language or reality, which is a conception that underlies Carnap’s principle of tolerance.

Light and relative humidity requirements' effects on fruits tree cultivation

Abdul-HasenMadfoonabu; Abdul-Kadhim Al-Hiloo

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 30, Pages 39-54

This study aimed to reveal the relationship between the light requirement, humidity and cultivation and grow of fruit trees. In this study we find that the important role of light increasing the process of photosynthesis which leading to increase in the size of trees and amount of fruits. The light intensity determine the amount of sugar and acid in the fruit by affection on substances in rolled in the photosynthesis process. Humidity also has affect on vegetetiry and fruity growth of the fruits trees specially the citrus and palm trees, humidity depletion leads to early fruit falls before its become ripe.

Sanctuaries in Al-Najaf al-Ashraf and holy Kufa cities on internet by using GIS

Abdul-sahib Naji Al- Baghdady; Ali HameedSa

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 30, Pages 55-80

The GIS applications on the internet is one of more important application and modernity , this technology is attending by create a maps and share it on the internet to became for all GIS users.
Web GIS is the high benefits for more applications , same tourism , traffic , and the digital maps Of cities , … , etc.
This research is come to create a maps , show the religious sites (graves , shrines , and mosques ) in the holy Najaf and Kufa cities by using Geographic Information Systems ( GIS ) , then share this maps on internets by ( Web GIS Applications )

Obscuring in object relating the described in the holy Qura'n

Hakim Habeeb Al-Graity; Widad Hamid Al-Selamy

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 30, Pages 81-90

This research is taken from my Ph.D. thesis entitled "the Hidden Indication of the Adjective for the Recipient in the Holy Quran" supervised by Prof. Dr. Hakim Habeeb Al-Greti. In the research I tackled the hidden reference of the adjective and the referent, for occurring after two names that take the same adjective. Then, I mentioned the hidden reference of the adjective for the several narrations ascribed to the prophet's companions. Of the reasons behind the hidden reference of the adjective are the several readings found. Then the research is concluded by mentioning the results reached through the study, asking Allah for luck.
The adjective is used to reveal the verbal sharing of the definite nouns and reduce it in the indefinite ones, and the contexts could lose its function to the point that the adjective lose its ability to explain the ambiguity in the described noun and does not aid the recipient in determining the demanded indication because it could refer to more than one reference and where the undefined adjective occurs, lies the hidden indication.
The research also reached to the fact that the hidden indication results from several meanings of which are it comes post two nouns that could take the same adjective because of the several readings found and the many narrations ascribed to the prophet's companions.

Historical geography of the city of Barcelona Andalusian In the Middle Ages

JassimYassin Al Darwish; Hussein JabbarAlaleaoa

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 30, Pages 91-116

Barcelona city located in the north-east of the Iberian Peninsula on the Mediterranean, was inaugurated in the year 94 AH / 712 AD, then transformed into a base for Islamic armies crushed in Gaul country , and continued under Muslim rule about ninety years to be able to Christians then restored, the first stomata Andalusian, which fell to the Christians in the year 185 AH / 801 AD.
Hence the importance of the historical significance of geographical study of this city, which contributed to the early in the fall, he has touched on her name and Achtqaqath according to what is stated in the sources available to us, then the location and boundaries and distances between them and the mothers of the Andalusian cities, as reported in Arab sources, and we dealt with the economic activity of agriculture and industry, minerals, trade and research to address some aspects of social life of the city of Barcelona, such as the attributes of the population, their language and the role of the Jews, as well as the most important effects in them

Hydrological characteristics of low Alsalibat (visible in southern Iraq)

SarhanNaim al-Khafaji; Ali Muhsenkaml

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 30, Pages 117-174

The low Alsalibat important depressions which are located in southern Iraq, specifically in the provinces of Muthanna, DhiQar, and within walking distance of the course of the Euphrates River, a distance, though construction Tectonic for low falls within the scope of the seam between the sidewalk stable (sedimentary easy) others and sidewalk Mstqralamtmthel b (Western plateau). The region has been affected by tectonic movements that stretched from the eras third time until the Holocene of time four-wheel, and had the effect of these movements played a major role in the low configuration, in addition to contrast the influence of other factors of the geological structure and topography and the climate and soil in its composition, low and is considered one of the natural reservoirs the task of water in the region, it shall take the tank to the Euphrates River excess during the flood period, as well as water valleys, as it ends a series of valleys that varies from the discharged water per class between the valley and the last. Of these valleys it starts flowing from inside Saudi territory, and denounced it as a drainage starts from inside Iraqi territory, as well as so that the center of this low represents Lake Hoare Itbainun in terms of depth on the one hand to the other.

Political criticism in Al-Jawahiry poetry

Ali KadhimJawadSemaisem

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 30, Pages 175-216

The Poetry of Al-Jwahiri is a document and a history. Since literature is the essence of history, we can find within it events, culture, thought, struggle of modern Iraq and the Arab region and the attempts of the living peoples in its march towards justice and freedom taking the most sophisticated steps overcoming the romantic tendency during his era.
The document of Al-Jwahiri was mixed with an elevated art and a perfect well-formed language. He combined objectivity and aesthetics he also mixed his blood and pains, excitement with his carelessness as well as his hopes and wishes. He recorded history and participated in making history through subjective and objective methods. His poetry was imprinted in the imagination and thoughts of people.
It was Al-Jwahiri who called for solving the problems of Iraq which he suffered from till our time. Policy and struggle is what made his poetry a burning type of poetry and elevated his severe criticism and the political attitude is what made Al-Jwahiri an alienated loner wondering the countries of the world.

A stylistic study in phonetics and repetition in Al-DhariyatSura


Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 30, Pages 217-236

Stylistics is amongst the most important linguistics issues and is itself divided into various subdivisions; this research is concerned with the issue of sound and its repetition. Sound (phoneme) is the smallest particle of a literary text, and studying it will guide us towards perceiving the meaning of the words through their sounds. Sounds are of various kinds such as loud and plosive ones, or more subtle and gentle ones, as well as the ones with a whistle-like quality, all of which have been appropriately employed in Quranic letters, words, and sentences. Repetition is the basis for the formation of an external music in the holy verses of Quran; and the length of it is related to the meaning of the verse. Findings of the research indicate a complete correlation between the lengths of the verses and loud, gentle, and whistle-like qualities of the sounds. Aside from the repetition of verses, this research covers the repetition of sounds. The present stylistics research seeks to categorize the sounds in the Sura of ADDARIAT as well as studying the repetition of letters, words, and sentences with a descriptive-analytical approach.

Iraq educational satellite channel fulfillment of the final classes students requirements- A field study in a sample of Baghdad schools 'students

AmmarTahir Mohammed

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 30, Pages 237-284

This research paper deals with the frame satiate Iraqi satellite s educational needs teaching for students of classes ended where conducted the field study on a sample of Baghdad school students because of the large role that could be played by the educational TV to the upgrading process pedagogical after technical developments in the media and the education sector alike.
Researcher aims through scientific procedures to identify satisfy and motivation for the students of ended classes– the sixth preparatory specifically- through exposure to educational and satellite Iraq investigate the reason s for follow – up and aversion MHAHDT educational lessons as well as the need insisted .
The researcher by the results of his research to several conclusions , notably that Iraqi Satellite TV pedagogical need to re- consider the style to provide lessons for students of stages ending and make these methods NES to dry lessons for follow up and students stages ending watching satellite Iraq pedagogical limited to to no more than often for
On the other hand a number of ending stages students acknowledge satellite educational Iraq to satisfying their wishes and meet their needs in terms of submission of all the lessons and cover the entire curriculum to be an easy way through the well – known teachers experience and efficiency as allows them to communicate in different ways..
And it was based on research into Arabic and foreign translate modern sources as well as websites for allotropy theoretical research topic in a way pave to realize a broader specially that educational television is generally longer useful experience in Iraq, spacious and large in many Arab countries and the world .

Time structure between forestallment and flashback in The Scorpion novel for MurtadhainAabcna

ResoolBelawy; HussainTerfyElaywy

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 30, Pages 285-306

يُعد الزمن عنصراً أساسياً ومميزاً في النصوص الحكائية بشكل عام. فلقد كان الزمن ولا يزال نقطةً تثار حولها الكثير من القضايا والإهتمامات، في مختلف المجالات المعرفية.وقدكثرت الدراسات والبحوث حول الروايات وفيما يخصّ بناء الزمان من استرجاعاتواستباقات في الحدث السردي، لكن قلما نجد اختيارات ناجحة للرواية التي تمتّعت بلغة حديثة فكانت تحمل تقنيات جديدة تحاول أن تخرق السير الخطي للرواية كما نراه في رواية العقرب للكاتب الإيراني حسين مرتضائيانآبكنار.فقد استطاع آبكنارأن يتلاعب كثيرا بعنصر الزمان مع طرق سردية مختلفة من لغة قافزا من لغة العليم للغة الذاتية لتكتنز روايته بكثافة زمنية ولغة سردية مغايرة لخرق النسيج التقليدي للسرد.
هذه الدراسة وفقا للمنهج الوصفي-التحليلي، تهدف لدراسةالبنيّة الزمنية في رواية العقرب. و قد ابتدأت الدراسة بتفصيل القول في تصورات النقاد لموضوعة الزمن و تقانات تشكيله داخل المتن الحكائي، ثم عرجنا بالحديث عن هذه التقانات وركزنا الحديث على تقنيّة االاسترجاع و تقنية الاستباق بوصفهما قطبي العلاقة مع الحاضر الذي يتموضع فيه الراوي. وتلسط الضوء حول نوع السرد الذي استخدمه الكاتب لكل فصل دون الآخر مع تحليل النصوص لفهم الرواية بشكل أكبر وفك شيفرات النص.
الكلمات الدليلية: الرواية، السرد، الزمان، الإسترجاع، الإستباق،آبكنار.

Woman in Simon De Bavoar thought

JawadKadhimSemar; Sara TalibShamikh

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 30, Pages 307-322

تمثل التجربة الوجودية أهم ما يمر به الفيلسوف الوجودي على أساس ان التجربة الوجودية هي تجربة خاصة تنبع من الذات الإنسانية وسيرتها في الحياة والفكر , وبذلك يمكن القول بان لكل فيلسوف وجودي تجربة وجودية خاصة به وهكذا هو الحال مع سيمون دي بوفار في تجربتها الوجودية بعدها مارست دوراً في الحياة و الفكر لفتت الأنظار أليها وتركت تأثيرها الواضح على مسيرة المرأة في العالم وخصوصاً في آرائها الوجودية حول المرأة خصوصاً في كتابها (الجنس الآخر) ,بل يمكن اعتبار كتابها هذا أنجيل الحركة النسوية بأسرها , فهي تستهل كتابها (الجنس الآخر) بعبارة شهيرة صارت شعار الحركة النسوية في شتى توجهاتها وهي (المرأة لا تولد امرأة بل تصبح امرأة ) , أشاره إلى الدور الذي يقوم به المجتمع في صياغة وضع الأنثى والتفرقة بينها وبين الذكر ,وتقويضاً للفكرة القائلة بان الحتمية البيولوجية هي التي جعلت المرأة جنساً ثانياً .
لقد قسمنا هذا البحث إلى مبحثين تناول البحث في المبحث الأول سيرة سيمون دي بوفار واهم مؤلفاتها ,وعلاقتها بجان بول سارتر , أما في المبحث الثاني فقد اقتصر البحث على موضوع المرأة في فكر سيمون دي بوفار , وانتهى البحث بخاتمة و قائمة للمصادر

Interchanging in the principles of Grammar from a functional point of view

Interchanging in the principles of Grammar from a functional point of view

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 30, Pages 323-342

The scholarlies of syntax have observed applications that are in conflict with the rules the have invested. Thus, they gathered and studied them accurately. So they found two similar applications which their axioms are alternative –the axiom exchanges between these two applications. It means a word lends it's axiom to another word, only if this word loans it's axiom to the previously mentioned word. Therefore, in order to interpret this phenomenon, the syntax scholarlies believe that between these two words two analogue rules happened in which the axiom of the first word, according to an analogue rule, has transferred to the other word and vice versa. This is a firm proof for dynamism and aflection of Arabic language in communication with native Arabic speakers in order to facilitate the communication, statement and transmission of the speakers' purposes.

Genocide crime and legality principle in the international criminal law

Abdul-ResoolKereem Abu- saib; Hana; aHammody Al-Jabiry

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 30, Pages 343-366

Genocide and Legality in Criminal International Law
This research treats principle of legality in criminal international law and treats especially with genocide. We divide it into two chapter; the first chapter topic is identifying of genocide as an international crime, we treat with definition and fundamental elements of genocide. While second chapter topic is legality in criminal international law, we treat with subjective legality and legality in narrow conception. We listed some important results and suggestions in a conclusion.

Tattoo in the pre Islamic poetryA study in the light of the social reality

a Abbas Keshkool; Han

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 30, Pages 367-388

كشفت الدراسة البحثية في أصول نشأة الوشم في عمقها التأريخي النقاب عن ظهور هذه الظاهرة في الديانات الطوطمية ، فكان يعتقد أن خروج الدم في أثناء عملية النقش يجعل صورة الطوطم تمتزج امتزاجاً روحياً ومادياً بطوطمه ، فيكون هو والطوطم الموسوم به مشتركين بصفات واحدة .
- ويستعمل الوشم لأغراض الزينة أو لمعالجة بعض الأورام والآلام ، وله علاقة بأفكار السحر ، وتساعد علامات الوشم على تعريف الشخص وانتسابه إلى طائفة معينة أو قبيلة بعينها .
- والوشم هو رسم شكل معين ينقش على جزء من أديم جسم الإنسان بوخزة الإبرة وذر عليه صبغة لون معين ، لتتفاعل مع الدم المنبجس من وخز الإبرة تاركاً أثراً ثابتاً لا يتغير على الجلد ، والوشم المنقوش هو جزء من عملية الوشم وليس الوشم نفسه.
- وقد أكد شعراء ما قبل الإسلام على الوشم في أجزاء الجسم ومنها اليد والكف والرسغ والمعصم والذراع ، وعزفوا عن ذكره في باقي أجزاء الجسم مثل : الصدر والنحر والبطن والسرة والفخذ والساق والحجل والقدم ، ويبدو أن تركيز الشعراء على الأجزاء المذكورة آنفاً من جسم الإنسان ، يعود إلى أنها ظاهرة مكشوفة لعيون الناظرين ، اما الأجزاء التي لم يذكروها في أشعارهم فهي مخفية غير ظاهرة لعيون الناظرين ؛ لأنها مغطاة بالملابس ؛ ولهذا عزف الشعراء عن ذكرها

Al- Dhiya'a Cairo magazine 1898- 1906 a documentary study

SaifNajahAbu- saib

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 30, Pages 389-440

The purpose of this research being dedicated to clarify the importance and prestige of an Arab magazine reform - regenerative did not take the right or share in academic studies; as well as to identify and review historical analysis depth to the most prominent of those magazine processors that led roles intellectual and cultural influential in the events and the facts of the history of the Arab Orient modern theater .
This study also aims to illustrate the importance of studying this magazine as one of the leading sources of the study of history, so that most of the studies of Iraq, whether or Arabic that dealt with specific events and historical facts did not address the subject of the Arab press with a few exceptions, although they constitute important than the history of those stages source, Hence, this study came as a step in this field may be that such a generalized study subjects means and highlights the most prominent newspapers and magazines, especially those that have emerged in the leadership of the importance of the press and the establishment phase
The means to achieve this research has been based on Atkhave curriculum descriptive and investigative and analytical So what necessitated by scientific necessity to follow such a curriculum contributed Baissala to several important results mean the subject, which has worked to address all its reasons; in addition to the foregoing was my usage of each folders magazine photophobia collectively eight; it was the basic means by which interested researcher often in a manner provided by those numbers from a database marked profusely article and their platforms cognitive, intellectual, scientific, literary, medical, industrial and other, which in turn is reflected in the detailed study of some aspects and trends, views and blueprints press at the time, and here I returned some of these contents published by Luminance sophisticated and clear in the field of journalistic writing and a fraction of the severity of the traditional trend during that era in the quality of published topics, which Matjsd show that it considered the right leader for the movement of reform and renewal in the history of the modern Arab press .

The eye rhymed poem for IbnZoraiqh Al- Baghdadi- an analytic study


Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 30, Pages 441-462

This research aims to study Abinzuriq Al Baghdadi poem, it is divided in to four parts : The first deals with structure of poem, the second about the language use, the third in rhythmic, and the four about image . The poem features are; the structure of poem is complete, easy and coherent, The purpose of it is apology. The poet uses clean and easy word, it is settable with her feeling. The poet employ al bseet rhythm .He interested of image by used different shapes of it.

Grammatical function

Ali HatifKereem

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 30, Pages 463-478

I've found through research that the function of the component of the one in real language per installation located in the Arab use of the association give indications of the use, and that the multi-functional meaning of the building are vital in the field of linguistic research, it reflects the complexity of relationships between data, morphological and syntactic and depends on recognizing a full understanding of the meaning of the expression in Arabic, the building is morphological per favor because expresses more than one meaning as long as the meaning determined by the evidence of the moral and verbal and present alike, have been found to function grammatical in some Arab linked to brand syntactical as the mark are determined by the reader or hearer Position grammatical type, so the possibility of more than one mark in the health of the floor, according to denote the intended especially in the Koran, so it proves the instability of jobs grammatical vocabulary within the compositions as well as the original exchange of grammatical functions that solves a single Baalamth single sign another shop differently.

The Cognitive Principle of Relevance and its Application to Anti Iraq War Posters

Freed H. Al-Hindawi; Rufaidah Kamal Abdulmajeed

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 30, Pages 9-30

Relevance theory is a psychological model for understanding the cognitive interpretation of language, was developed by Dan Sperber and Deirdre Wilson in 1986 and republished in 1995. They argue that the thing that causes an input to stand out from others is its relevance to the receiver and that every utterance creates in the addressee an expectation of relevance. The underlying assumption of relevance theory is that in any given context, the addressee has to assume that what people say is relevant.
In this paper the problem of the cognitive principle of relevance theory presented by Sperber and Wilson is approached in its application to the posters painted by people who are opposing an American led war against Iraq. The analysis will be conducted to find out how these posters achieve a successful communication and how is that the audience recognizes that the designer of each poster has something to say that matters, something that is relevant and how the addressee understands the content of these posters and how he/she uses their cognition to interpret the posters’ contents and finds them relevant as they are apposing the war against Iraq.

The Poet as Painter: A Study in John Ashbery's "Self-Portrait in a Convex Mirror

Qasim Salman Serhan; MuhannedAgelHadi

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 30, Pages 31-50

This paper deals with John Ashbery (1927 -), who is acknowledged as one of the ''greatest'' American living poets. Actually, his fanaticism towards ''art for art's sake'' leads him to distil his poetry from any social, religious or political issues. The present paper sheds light on the impact of painting on his poetry generally and on his masterpiece "Self-Portrait in a Convex Mirror'' in particular. It also focuses on how Ashbery follows the technique of Abstract Expressionism or The New York School whichAshberyforms its backbone. Like the Abstract Expressionist, Ashbery believes that the artist has the capacity to use art as a means to allow the unconscious mind to express itself. It can also be noticed that most of his works are nonobjective because they do not attempt to depict objects from the real world or portray figures from the visible world.


Abbas DeyganDarweesh; Anfal Adnan Ali

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 30, Pages 51-64

This study investigates a new category of word combination referred to as lexical bundles. Lexical bundles has been defined by Biber et. al. (1999) as " sequences of three or more words that show a statistical tendency to co-occur" (Ibid:183). The study aims at exploring the functions of lexical bundles in political speeches, finding out the types of bundles used in political speeches. The study adopts Biber (2006) model of classification to the analysis of lexical bundles in some British political speeches. The main finding of this study indicates that the referential function of lexical bundles has taken a priority over other types of functions in the political discourse.

The Reversible Image of Successful Women in Caryl Churchill’s Top Girls

SaadNajim Al-Khafaji; Hayder Mohammed Al-Maraabi

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 30, Pages 65-82

This paper deals with Caryl Churchill’s famous play, Top Girls (1982). The focus of this paper is directed towards Marlene, the protagonist of this play, and her surreal guests whom she invited to her dinner party. Discussing Marlene's success, her way of life, and her treatment to other women around her, this paper analyses Marlene as a character and how she can be compared to Thatcher, the British Prime Minister. The paper also discusses the stories of Marlene's guests and the way they consider themselves successful. The paper exhibits the success stories of these women and how they suffer to reach their success. Measuring the success and fame they reached, the paper explores how the success of these women can be regarded a failure for the feminist case as their success cannot be regarded as a landamark for success for other women nor other women should exactly follow their steps.

Over The Counter Drug Labels “A Linguistic Study”

Mayada R. Eesa

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 30, Pages 83-92

English is the arena’s most extensively used language. Quirk, et al. (1992:4) said that English is used as an international language for inner purposes, for speakers to speak with other audio system of the equal united states of america. I.e. it serves mainly as an international language. it is the medium of conversation with audio system from other countries.
The current study deals with drug labels which accompany most of medical products. They offer a great deal of information aboutthe background of the product, how effective it is in addition to feedback by those who have used the product, and so on. They main purpose is making the readers satisfied and believe that what they are reading is really true. In fact , there are two main functions to anydrug label . One of them is to identify the contents of the container and last one is to ensure that patients who use them have clear and accurate information that can help them in using their medication in effectively and appropriately.The research tries to answer the following questions: How long or short is the text (and is it too long or too short? ),What are the linguistic features of the text ? Did you find any errors? Is it linguistically perfect text? Is it understandable by Iraqi people? Are there any medical terminology inside these texts?How about the structure and the technicality of the vocabulary that are used in drug labels .