Spatial distribution of the rate of supporting in Al- Najaf province for (1997-2014)
2018, Volume 1, Issue 32, Pages 11-30
This research studied the main three age categories including the young (under 15 years) which constituted 44% in 1997. Later on is decreased to 43% in 2007 and 39% in 2014. While the second category (the youth) from 15-64 has increased to reach 52% in 1997 and increased to 54% in 2007 then to 58% in 2014. As for the third category, 65 years and older, it reached 4% in 1997, and 3% in 2007untill 2014. The support system of this governorate reached 92% in 1997, 85% in 2007 and continued to decrease reaching 72% in 2014. This decrease happened due to several affecting factors like fertility that reached 0.164 in 1997 then slightly increased to 0.175 in 2007 and decreased to 0.151 in 2014. While mortality and immigration factors were also of the factors affecting the supportsystem
… and continuity of rain in Iraq
2018, Volume 1, Issue 32, Pages 31-46
Strongly rain meant the amount of rain that falls during a certain period of time, and is expressed in a number of terms, including rain intensity or the abundance of rain or force Anhmarh, is the intensity or abundance of important things that draws the attention of engineers and hydrologists including associated conditions of soil and groundwater, as well as natural plant .
Geographical distribution of heavy rains in Iraq differs depending on the factors that cause rainfall, which affects the rain type, and then in severity, although the rain intensity or density calculation is one of the important things, especially in the water business, which have a relationship waterways systems and design of irrigation and drainage projects, and to determine the importance of This aspect has become necessary to refer to the amount of rain, attributed to the period of the crash.
Classification of foreign land roads in Dhi-Qhar province by using ( GIS)
2018, Volume 1, Issue 32, Pages 47-68
The study includes of Classification of outer highways in Thiqar province . the number of the outer roads in the field of study is (18) highways in addition to the Classification of vehicles and numbering the main highways,so this classification includes the (historical - morphological- and functional role).The morphologicalClassification is considered the most important one which is distributed the outer roads in the field of study into highways and subways The number of the highways is (2) while the subways (8) .
The vehicles are classified into small cars which are (81740) and long vehichles which are (27987)cars . Also the number of thevehichles classified according to the petrol which are (81740)cars
Climatic Characteristics of Al-Najaf province and their relation with bush growth affecting rice protection
2018, Volume 1, Issue 32, Pages 69-102
Rice food crop diet is one of the basic food security pillars, so all nations strive for providing a barrier to the need of the growing population numbers with high living standards, increasing the demand for it, and it was Iraq is one of the exporting countries of rice until the end of the last century, then taken it produced to decrease as a result of water scarcity and the worsening the problem of the spread of the weeds in the rice fields, which cause significant losses in production of up to (63%), permission must work to increase production so as to combat what grows from the weeds in the rice fields, and to achieve this goal has to be to look for the characteristics of the weeds, which help on survive and spread , as well as research in the most important climatic characteristics of the search area, which helps the growth of the weeds that negatively affect the quantity and quality of the production of rice, to develop treatments that would limit the damage to the weeds, we have reached research to a number of outcomes favorable climatic characteristics of the province of Najaf for the growth confirmed rice crop and weeds together, with the weeds to withstand extremes in the ability of these elements and to cope with it, and with a strong correlation between the growth of the weeds and rice on the one hand and between climate elements combined by finding the correlation coefficient between them.
Dhul-Kifl in the geographers and travelars' books( A historical study)
2018, Volume 1, Issue 32, Pages 103-124
1- شكلت كتب الجغرافيين والرحالة أ هميه كبيرة أذ تعد واحده من المصادر الرئيسيه لكتابة التاريخ ، وتكمن قيمتها بما تحوية من معلومات تاريخيه ووصف جغرافي يبين فيه حال المنطقة المزاره .
2- مرقد النبي ( ذو الكفل ) واحد من المواقع الأثاريه والتاريخية المهمة في العراق وقد وصل اليه العديد من الرحالة الأجانب والعرب وقد سجلوا معلومات قيمه عن المرقد والنبي والسكان وأبرز المعالم الحضارية التي تخص المكان .
3- ظهر اختلاف واضح بين المؤرخين والمفسرين فيما يتعلق بأسم النبي ( ذو الكفل ) وشخصيته ، وقد أتفقت أغلب الآراء على انه حزقيال نبي بني اسرائيل الذي جاء به نبوخذ نصر الثاني ملك بابل حينما هاجم مملكة يهوذا في فلسطين .
4- أبرز من كتب من الجغرافيين العرب عن المرقد والمنطقة هو ياقوت الحموي ، ولم يعطي تحديدا جغرافي دقيق للمكان وانما ربط بين منطقتين هما بر ملاحة والقسونات .
5- أكثر من زار المكان وأطلع عليه الرحالة الأجانب ومنهم بالتحديد الرحالة اليهود الذين سجلوا مشاهداتهم على القبر والمقام وأشاروا الى بعض الجوانب المهمة كعقائد اليهود مثلا وطبيعة العلاقة بينهم وبين المسلمين الذين شاركوهم المكان والمعيشة .
6- كان للرحالة العرب كذلك النصيب في توثيق بعض المعلومات التي تخص جوانب حضارية وفكرية متعلقة بشخصية النبي ( ذو الكفل ) .
7- للأهمية التي شكلها النبي ( ذو الكفل ) بالنسبة لليهود والمسلمين حظي هذا المرقد بزيارة علماء المسلمين وشخصياتهم البارزة لغرض اقامة الحوارات والمناظرات مع اليهود لتوضيح بعض المسائل الشاكلة بين الطرفين .
The establishment the of the Iraqi- Kuwait boundaries after Iraq invasion of Kuwait.
2018, Volume 1, Issue 32, Pages 125-160
We can conclude from the research and the way it takes, that the international borders show the spatial relations among countries , it can originate the international cooperation or international problems .this may play a negative role in regional and international relations .
Due to the importance of borders in international sovereignty demarcation and natural resources and regional water that is way borders paly a basic role in international relations by establishing a cooperation relations among countries or could play a negative role because of border problems .
When we take a look back to the history of border problems that happened between Iraq and Kuwait , and to the future prospects of what happened later , you will find it had taken a historical and political event .
The building of border issue countined for a long and many times it stuck after the beginning of Iraqi –Iranian war .
Iraq was in state of war and this is why the Kuwait file was on the waiting list .
The Iraqi government was in need to financial aids and loans so it tried to fix its relations with Kuwait , it reflects on the Iraqi foreign policy it talked the war as justification to delay the effort to build borders , and it had a huge impact later especially when Kuwait was occupied by Iraq in 1991.
Constructive planning role in protecting the urban environment against the houses wastes ( A study case in Al-Makremah Q. in Al-Najaf al- Asraf)
2018, Volume 1, Issue 32, Pages 161-194
The research aims to study the problem of household waste management in the neighborhood of Mecca one revive the holy city of Najaf and develop solutions to this problem, the study focused on the role of urban planning in the protection of the urban environment of household waste, then calculate and estimate the amount of household waste generated and to know the percentages of the components of solid waste, in order to achieve this goal was to conduct the survey and prepare a questionnaire to determine the installation and the rate of household solid waste production for a group of families who have been elected in the study area and the study has shown that the daily amount of waste transported from the neighborhood and business district is almost 46 tons per day, while the amount of waste raised and estimated about 57 706 tons / day, which means that there are approximately 11,706 tons / day of waste is not removed from the streets and open spaces free in the neighborhood, where they are throwing waste into the squares and spaces open and turn sidewalks into garbage dumps of the lack of gathering containers the waste, which is leading to insects and rodents that health impact on the population of the city as well as the deformation aesthetic neighborhood, which increases the size of the problem pool is limited human cadres of workers hygiene and lack of cars waste collection and transportation as well as failure to follow healthy ways to get ridof waste
Seqlea Island –Historical civilization Research
2018, Volume 1, Issue 32, Pages 195-218
إن بداية أي فتح أو غزو في القديم أو الحديث يتطلب من أي أمة استقصاء الأخبار والإمعان في الموقع الجغرافي والحالة السياسية والاجتماعية لذلك المجتمع بغاية التحصين والاستعداد.كذلك كان الأمر مع جزيرة صقلية عندما فكر الفاتحون الأوائل في ضمها للبلاد الإسلامية.
وانطلاقا من هذه المعطيات نقول: أين تقع صقلية؟و ما هي الشعوب التي سكنتها؟ كيف كانت أحوال صقلية قبيل الفتح الإسلامي؟
The motives of Mecca adjacent Areas in the first Abbasside era.
2018, Volume 1, Issue 32, Pages 219-246
The search in our hands is concerned with the study of the impulses of the neighborhood of Mecca in the first Abbasid period which were numerous because this period had witnessed political developments and a scientific and cultural advancement that left its clear prints on the Islamic civilization. As a result the impulses of the neighborhood of sacred Mecca were various according to the neighbors. These impulses had a vital role in sacred Mecca in the first Abbasid period. The Search was divided into two hubs. The first search was concerned with the study of the essence of that neighborhood, while the second one was concerned with the study of the impulses of the neighborhood of sacred Mecca in the first Abbasid period. Through this search, I got the result that the mentioned neighborhood was a result of economical, scientific, religious, administrative and political impulses. All these impulses played a great role in making many people live too near sacred Mecca
Arab universities' role in society service in the terms of their social responsibility
2018, Volume 1, Issue 32, Pages 247-272
The study aimed to highlight the role of Arab universities in the activation of community service valuable light of its social responsibility, and despite growing interest in the last ten years on the concept of social responsibility has become a community looking forward to it to address the social problems that increased aggravation and influence in the world, but that the level of the Arab interest in social responsibility is still going slow and unclear, and therefore the study is particularly important because the criterion of the success of the university and its mission defined in the establishment of the relationship and documented so it is a call to the need to link the university community and the environment rather, the dominance of the environment at the university programs and the inevitability of their participation in various events to be the voice of the community and with the nation's conscious and class that holds concerns.
The Islamic contemporary Usuli Movement( the rise and method)
2018, Volume 1, Issue 32, Pages 273-294
This research is study the movement of the Islamic contemporary fundamentalism which emerged with the founding of the group of (muslim Brotherhood )in 1928 and continued after that .It represented by violence and distortion of some Islamic concepts such as the concept of jihad to gain some political aims . the research study also , the main characters which y it's names joined with the movement of the Islamic contemporary fundamentalism ideologically and methodically and made it with the level of other secularism tendencies in Arab homeland in the mid twentieth century .
The poetic quotations and their semantics purposes in Al-Mizan for Al-Tabatabay
2018, Volume 1, Issue 32, Pages 295-310
إنّ الشواهد الشعرية من أهمّ ما يعتمد عليها عادة في الدراسات الأدبية بالأخص إذا ما كان التفسير يعرف بالتفسير الأدبي فإنّ الشعر يستفاد منه بياناً للكلمات والعبارات القرآنية وإثباتاً للمعنى الذي يرومه المفسّر ولم يكن المفسّر يحظى به إلاّ إذا تذوّق الشعر والأدب. وعليه يظهر من تفسير الميزان للعلاّمة الطباطبائي أنّه بالإضافة إلى تذوّقه من الأدب وتمتعه به كان متمكنا من إبداء آراء سديدة يتحفها بدلالات وشواهد من الآيات قبل أن يعتمد على الشواهد الشعرية. وأما الشواهد الشعرية المعوّلة عليها في الميزان فإنّها متناثرة فيه وتختلف إلى البلاغة واللغة والنحو وموضوعات عامّة اجتماعية أخرى وغيرها. ومن مميزات الميزان أنه مُتحف بمباحث لغوية وأدبية من ضمنها الشواهد الشعرية التي يناهز عددها 172 بيتاً وللعلامة فيها إشراف ودقّة كما أنّه لا يولي بها الاهتمام إلا إذا اقتضت الحاجة في إيضاح بعض الآيات. والذي يذكره من الشواهد قد يذكر مصدره مثل ما يحيل أحياناً بعضها إلى الكشاف أو المجمع أو المفردات وقد لا يصرّح فيه بمصدر.
The Personality of weman in (Altantorya) story for Radawe Mustafa Ashor Ali light Spefakopinion
2018, Volume 1, Issue 32, Pages 311-344
الشخصية هي من أهم المكوّنات السردية في الأدب القصصي. وتلعب دوراً أساسياً في تجسيد فكرة وأيديولوجية الروائي. للشخصية الروائية تصنيفات متعددة لكن هذه التصنيفات لم تعتن بفكرة الجنوسة، ولا ينظر النقّاد غالبًا إلي جنس الشخصية في دراسة السرد. والمرأة الكاتبة تحسّ وتفكر وتبدع وصراعها من أجل مقاومة التهميش لا يختلف عن صراع أي جماعة في المجتمع. وتسعي دوماً إلي ارتفاع شأنها من حيز الهامش إلي حيز المركز. تهدف هذه الدراسة باعتماد المنهج الوصفي-التحليلي إلي تحليل الشخصيات النسائية الهامشية في رواية «الطنطورية» لرضوي عاشور، وذلك وفق آراء غاياتري سبيفاك في ضوء نظرية ما بعد الكولونيالية. من أهم النتائج التي توصّلنا إليها هي أنّ جميع الشخصيات النسائية في الرواية لا يعشن بلدهن لأسباب مختلفة. وهذا الأمر يرجع إلي الهاجس الرئيس لدي رضوي وهو العزل المضاعف بالنسبة إلي النساء اللاتي يعانين من الجانبين الثقافي والسياسي. «رقية» هي الشخصية الرئيسة اللاجئة إنّها رغم هجرتها المتوالية تحافظ علي ثقافتها العريقة. إلّا أنّ «رندة» المرأة المهاجرة انبهرت بالثقافة الأجنبية ورفضت ثقافتها العريقة. وهناك أيضا المرأة المستعمَرة تعاني من المعاناة المزدوجة. ولذلك تتفق رضوي عاشور مع رأي سبيفاك القائل بأنّ التابعة ليست بإمكانها التكلّم إلّا إذا توفّر لها مناخ التعبير الذي يتهيأ بواسطة المجتمع الذكوري والاستعمار.
Semantics field of the literary terms and expressions in mass media- newspapers and news channels as examples.
2018, Volume 1, Issue 32, Pages 345-367
اللغة،كما يقرّرأكثرعـلمائها،لاتـقتصروظـيفتهاعليالتفاهمبينالأفراد،وانماتتجاوزذلكإليأنهاالأداةالتييتعلّمويفكربهاالإنسان.فهيتقودعقلهوتـوجّهه،وبهايستدّلعليالسلوكالقويممعالآخرينفهيفضلاعنذلكتحفظالتراثالثـقافيللمجتمعات.فهيإذنمنظّمةالعلاقاتالاجـتماعية،ووسـيلةالتعاملوالتعاونبينأفرادالمجتمعوأهمّأدواتالحفاظعليكيانه.فهيقلبالأمـّةالنـابضوجهازهاالمحرّك. فالمصطلحات العربيةوالتعابيرالمأثورةتعتبررافداً من روافد نمو اللغة والخيطالسرّيالذييمكنمنخلالهالوصولإليبعضالخفاياوالأسراروقراءةمابينالسطورالتيتختفيخلفالجدارالمعرفي.فالأخباروصياغتهاتمثلجانباًمهماًفيعالمالمعرفةفيعصرناالراهنوتبقيعليالدوامالسبيلالفاعلفيمتابعةالأحداثوالتطورات التي تعصف بعالمنا اليوم.
فالمصطلحات المستخدمة في الخطاب الإعلامي ليست كلمات عشوائية، أو جمل مرصوصة تقال كيفما اتفق، بل هي كلمات مفتاحية، تحمل مضامين عميقة، ومفاهيم محددة، وأفكار مركزية، وهي ذات أهمية كبيرة، ومكانة مؤثرة في صلب الخطاب الإعلامي.فلاشك إنَّ الإعلامي القديراذاأرادالتواصلمعجمهوره،فعليهتوظيفاللغةالمرنةوالصورةالفنيةالقائمةعليالترابطاللغويوالايحائيالمشحونةبالتأثيروالتعبيرلنقلالخبروالمعلومةإليهمدونتعقيدأواطناب.
تسعيهذهالدراسةعبرالمنهجالتحليليمعرفةقيمةالصورة الفنية بعناصرها الأربعة (المجاز، التشبيه،الاستعاره،الكناية) للمصطلحاتالإعلاميةلتبيّنمديفاعليتهافيصياغةالخبروتحريرهباعتبارهاوسيلةمهمةمنوسائلالتعليمونقلالمعلومات،لأنهاتختصرالمسافةالطويلةفيالفهموإدراكالمعنى،وتغنيعنكثيرمنالكلام في الشرح والتوضيح والتفسير.فإن فهمها وادراك قيمتهايعدجزءاًأساسياًمنالوعيالإعلامي.
اولاً: ما هي اللغة الاعلامية؟ وماهي العلاقة بيناللغةوالاعلام ؟
ثالثاً: ماهي المصطلحات والتعابيرالأدبيةالإعلامية؟وماأثرهافيتحريرالخبروصياغته؟
كشفت الدراسة عن زيادةتوظيفالمصطلحاتمنقبلالاعلاميينبهدفالايحاءبافكارواتجاهاتمعينة عبر الايجازوالدقةالتعبيريةالكامنةفيالمصطلحاتبهدفالالتقاءجماليةسحرالاسلوبوالفكرةالمنقولةلتغييرالمواقفأوكسبهاأوتبديلهالاسيمافيفيالمناطقغيرالمستقرةفيالعالم،أوالتيتشهدصراعاتمسلحة،حيثتتنافسالأطرافذاتالعلاقةبتصنيعونحتالمصطلحات الإعلامية، وتسويقها ونشرها،للتأييدفكرةصاحبهومؤازرةمواقفهضدالطرفالآخر.
Fishiest organism and their penetration in the French policies 1934-1936
2018, Volume 1, Issue 32, Pages 377-398
Agree emergence of fascism in Europe in time with economic and social crises of acute, that befell the western world in the twenties of the twentieth century stage. Thanks to the social and historical conditions, fascism emerged on the political scene as a single qualified out of the crisis and save the existing social system, not to change it and this is an important point, because the fascist regimes did not spend on economic fundamentals of the existing system. But that the bulk of what I've done is that they have changed the form of government of Western democracy to authoritarian dictatorship winds, however, fascism is the exploitative rule of the new style because they are fascists sought from the outset to establish harsh rule works on the principle of blind obedience device system.
The Nazis had exercised overall physical liquidation method in order to eliminate political opponents, these practices have led to the extermination of an entire political forces, whether through death or displacement. May be a mass, fascist organizations are sought to create a broad base among the masses. This was done through the flatter the feeling of discontent among the peasants, who were forced to migrate to the city, but they remained prey to hunger and fear of the future. Oohmt fascist parties and small traders, craftsmen and owners of small factories in its ability to raise the risk of monopolies that threatens their existence, particularly since the Fascists who had been cared for in earnest, ideological work. In order to increase their influence on the masses and sabotage consciousness, where resorted to "ideological education" style in the spirit of fascism and racial superiority.
Residential types changing in al- Najaf Al-Ashraf and their effect on the urban environment
2018, Volume 1, Issue 32, Pages 399-448
Find the study of change in residential patterns we have said in the holy city of Najaf and its impact on urban environment
The study found:. residents of the city of Najaf distributed to revive the city of (56) neighborhood as there are differing number of housing units from one neighborhood to another and also varies population densities in the city's neighborhoods.. divided city of Najaf to four residential sectors: the old and the new female sector and the northern and southern Gaza Strip city sector.. The changing patterns of housing construction for the city of Najaf after health Najaf environment and exploiting it for all the vacant spaces and make home Moktdah population and a closed, leading to the spread of diseases and epidemics, pollutants and odors.. During the study found that the smaller the unit residential space increased problems where Blodhavh to the aesthetic impact on the city through the excesses that led to the destruction of green areas.. It turned out that most of the housing units have been canceled, including parks and turn them into housing units in addition to the divided to some residential units to more than one section all of which is reflected in the health of Najaf environment. residents of the city of Najaf said through a questionnaire that the impact of the construction style change affects the aesthetic The city also stressed that the change in the pattern of construction affects the environment pollution holy city of Najaf and varied opinions from one neighborhood to another.. clear from the residents' views divergent that there is a clear contrast between these views on the output of the construction pattern change pollution has scored the highest votes of visual pollution compared to other types of pollution.. also shows that there Etbiaan between the views of the population in terms of the reasons that led to the construction pattern of change has been confirmed that the highest number of votes was due to high land prices and rents, prompting them to cancel the gardens or the abuse on squares and empty spaces or Altjaz on agricultural land.. The municipal services in the city are diverse and distributed incorrectly between the districts of the city was to have found some neighborhoods enjoying the municipality services and healthy are better than others where paved roads and streets Alndifa available and paved in addition to the availability of sewerage networks and provides a large cadre of workers while he found revive Other underserved whether the municipality Aosahah services and the reason for this lack of staff enough in these neighborhoods for the disposal of solid waste, in order to rescue the transfer and Tndev streets and Trsifha and it turns out that the distribution of city services uneven and varies between the neighborhood and the last
Human imagination phinomiality and his dream images ontology for Gaston Bashilar
2018, Volume 1, Issue 32, Pages 449-478
This research study structure of human imagination and its elements according to philosopher and critic Bachelard, It analyses elements of human imagination when it products dream images and aesthetic images . These images belong to memory or imaginary mind. Bachelard's analysis of human imagination is according to phenomenological method, this research was divided into three parts: The first deals with analysis of elements of imagination and its images, the second part analyses structure of aesthetic consciousness in the phenomenological moment, the third part deals with construction of imagery mind of dreamer or artist.
The Fatimids and the commercial road to India( 358-567A.H./ 969-1171A.d.)
2018, Volume 1, Issue 32, Pages 479-512
The Fatimyun realized the importance of the location of Egypt in the Islamic world and knew its geographical advantages of the area located on the crossway to three continents; Africa, Asia and Europe. Moreover, the significant importance of the Mediterranean Sea in the international navigation. To make trade transactions easier between East andWest, they opened the Red Sea Cannel during the Reign of the Pharaohs , reestablished by the Batalimah, by the Muslims during the reign of Omar Ibn Al-Khattab and finally during the era of Amrullah al-Fatimi.
The Fatimis was related directly to trade or, more accurately, it was a commercial organization at first.
Egypt, during the Fatimid state flourished during the Fatimid Caliphate and witnessed considerable advancement in the various fields of life; political, economic, cultural and social aspects so rapidly, considerably and unprecedented. The Fatimid state competed the Iraq and Persia under the Abbasid era and this commercial competence increased reaching the Indian Harbors.
The Fatimischosed their workers real well away from the religion and doctrineto build a civilization that can contribute to the scientific efforts in the Islamic world. This helped in establishing a strong state full of peace and safety through a strong economic construction.
Liberating air transportation participation in developing the developing countries
2018, Volume 1, Issue 32, Pages 513-528
This research aims to analyze the issue to emphasize that the liberalization of air transport in the peripheral countries would improve air services, and thus linking them to the global system. To achieve this purpose, we have analyzed the number of free agreements between the peripheral countries and the Central Powers and the statement of its impact on the display of air transport. And the outcome of this analysis have emerged us mixed results, the air supply has increased in these countries, but the biggest up with the United States and other countries with less of the side. On the other hand we have seen an increase in the large number of air transport for the pairs of cities service.
Metonymy as a Pragma-Rhetorical Feature in some Speeches of Imam Ali
2018, Volume 1, Issue 32, Pages 9-24
The speech of Prophet Mohammad and his progeny (P.B.U.T) is regarded a main source for several sciences such as rhetoric and eloquence. Their speeches are expected to be an adequate corpus of analysis in the light of modern linguistic theories. As such, this paper investigates the pragma-rhetorical functions of metonymy in Imam Ali's (P.B.U.H) speeches. It aims at examining the applicability of one of the modern linguistic theories,namely rhetorical pragmatics, on Imam Ali's (P.B.U.H) speech. It is hypothesized that:(a)Imam Ali's (P.B.U.H) speeches serve as data of analysis for testing the applicability of Rhetorical Pragmatics, (b) he utilizes all types of metonymy to replace certain issues and actions, and (c) metonymy can breach pragmatic principles such as the cooperative principle so as to perform pragmatic functions.For the sake of analyzing the selected data, the study develops a model for finding out types of metonymy, pragmatic strategies and pragmatic functions.According to the analysis, a number of conclusions has been arrived at.All types of metonymy are used indata under scrutiny. The maxim of quality is the most prominent pragmatic strategy of metonymy. Besides, two functions are performed by these types of metonymy including affirmation and dispraise. Finally, the study proves that Imam Ali's (P.B.U.H) speeches are an important area of pragma-rhetorical data analyses.
John Barth's "Dunyazadiad": A Postmodern Reading of an Eastern Frame
2018, Volume 1, Issue 32, Pages 25-36
The frame-tale technique is one of the most ancient narrative techniques, its roots go back to the oral tradition. It refers to a set of embedded stories which are encircled by a larger framework, hence creating a hierarchical pattern of stories within stories,and highlighting the relation between the storyteller and the audience. The most famous example of the frame-tale is The Thousand Nights and One Nightin which Scheherazade, who represents the ideal storyteller narrates stories for the king Shahryar to save her life.
Most of postmodernist writers admired such stories and one of them is John Barth (1930- ), an American novelist whose fascination with the frame-tale tradition such as Decameron, The Canterbury Tales, and The Arabian Nights appears clearly in his novels. Barth recycles stories by using the idea of 'arranging literature', the stories that are recycled are taken from the Bible, The Arabian Nights (Barth's favorite frame-tale), and the heroic myths of the ancient Greek. He fully exploits the cultural relevance and perseverance when he chooses a text for his work. So, hepresentsthe frame-tale in a way that helps to develop the manner of narration, i.e. to lead narrative from exhaustion to replenishment. According to him, one can revive literature by returning to the past and the origin of fiction. This paper is an attempt to explore the structure of the frame-tale inBarth's novella "Dunyazadiad", the first story in his collection,Chimera.
The Effect of Peer-Assessment Method in Enhancing Iraqi EFL University Students’ Language Ability
2018, Volume 1, Issue 32, Pages 37-52
The present study aims at finding outthe effect of using peer assessment method on enhancing Iraqi university EFL students'language ability. To fulfillthe aim of this study, forty fourth- year students were selected to be the sample of the present study. Twenty students were enrolled in an experimental group that received instruction on peer-assessment. The other twenty students were enrolled in a control groupwhich was instructed on self-assessment. To collect data,apre-posttest technique was used.The findings indicate that the experimental group subjects’performanceinspeaking has been found to be better than that of the control group in the post-test.In the light of the results obtained,it is concluded that peer-assessmentis effective inenhancing language ability ofIraqi EFL learners.