A mapping model of the derivational relations of the results of soils in Najaf governorate using remote sensing (RS) and geographic information systems (GIS)

Abdul-Saheb Naji Rasheed Al-Baghdadi; Roqaya Ahmed Mohamed Ameen Al-Ani; Surah Abd Taha Dhaif Al-Athari

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 34, Pages 11-26

Agricultural development occupies in the Iraq mission and the special position because of its important role in the agricultural sector development in the Bible, the developed countries there is a significant financial support and technical and science and technology by governments to the agricultural sector despite the financial, technical and administrative and technological capabilities of the private sector Alzerai.lma it is essential that the government provide all forms of support for the development of the agricultural sector and resolving problematic development and to the greatness of agricultural development on the one hand the problems and the weakness of the financial, technical, administrative and technological possibilities and informatics private agricultural sector.
The research problem consists in the fact that the problematic agricultural development is a series of obstacles interlocking and overlapping the destruction of infrastructure and problems of land and Altsahromeshakl water in terms of quality and quantity, environmental pollution, low investment and stop state support and low use of agricultural technology package versus the weakness of the financial, technical, technological and administrative capabilities of the agricultural sector and the private inability to address the problems of agricultural development alone

The effect of the Bayby model in reading comprehension among high school students in reading material

Tahseen Faleh al-Kaem; Hadi Abdul-Hamza

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 34, Pages 27-46

على الرغم من أهمية القراءة، وتأثيرها الحاسم في حياة الأفراد والجماعات واهتمام الجهات الرسمية بتدريسها، وتنمية الميول نحوها، فان الواقع يشير الى ضعف كبير في اكتساب مهاراتها، سواء الأدائية أم العقلية، وهذا الواقع يشير الى تدني مستويات طلبة التعليم العام في الفهم القرائي بأنماطه ومستوياته المختلفة، وان هذا الضعف يزداد وضوحا واتساعا في الأنماط والمستويات العليا من الفهم(موسى،2001،80).
والظاهرةالواضحة والشاخصة هي وجود ضعفعند الطلاب في فهم ما يقرؤون، وانعكاسات ذلك على فهمهم لمحتويات الموضوعات الدراسية المقررة، وكذلك ما يقرأونه من نصوص وموضوعات في الكتب والمجلات العلمية والأدبية وأثر ذلك على تكوين خبراتهم المعرفية وانتفاعهم بما يقرؤون.
_المشكلة كيف تعالج هذا الأمر وكيف ترتقي بدرجة فهمهم من المستوى الحرفي إلى المستويات العليا من الفهم مثل المستوى الاستنتاجي و المستوى التقويمي والمستوى الناقد وغيرها من الدلائل التي اذا لم تتحقق يعني ان الطالب لم يفهم ما قرأ.
ومادة المطالعة بكتابها المقرر هي أحد فروع اللغة التي تهدف إلى تحقيق هذا الارتقاء بمستوى فهم الطلاب لما يقرؤون وكانت هناك اهداف عامة وخاصة كان من المؤمل تحقيقها من خلال هذا الدرس ولكن حالت بعض جوانب التقصير في العملية التربوية دون تحقيقها ومنها طرائق التدريس .
عليه فإن مشكلة البحث الحالي تتحدد فيمحاولة التعرف على أثر أنموذج (بايبي) في الفهم القرائي، لدى طلاب الصف الرابع العلمي في المطالعة.
أو تحديداً في الإجابة عن السؤال الآتي:
.ما اثر انموذج بايبي، في الفهم القرائي عند استخدامه لتدريس مادة المطالعة لطلاب المرحلة الاعدادية؟

Attempts to go out on Arab offers - causes and problems -

Rahim Khreibt Attia Al-Saadi

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 34, Pages 47-70

The search in Arabic music is so interesting, and requires knowledge of what the Arabs are familiar with certain weights according to a regular tune accurate in line with the taste of the Arab sound, which tends to simulate the Arab mood based on pure instinct.
When the time accumulated, the poets were looking for a new melody to get out of the strict system of Hebron, as this world set the weights of Arabic poetry in fifteen weight added to the student Sebwayh Said bin Masada another sea.
And Hebron was able to create circles of five containing all these seas, opening the door to poets to draw from them what they want of new weights, and yet all the poets resorted to the invention of new weights and types in the rhymes hoping to implement a new tune freed from the shadow of a shadow over them throughout Many centuries. We heard the square, the pentacle, the musk, the doll, the scarf, the item, and then the tefillah and the prose poem.
All of these terms represent stages of exit on the weights of Hebron and its five disciplined circles.
The research has made it clear that these attempts have been successful or unsuccessful.

Deck Aljen Al-homse accuser

Hadi A. AL-Tmimi; Jwad Gholam

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 34, Pages 71-90

إن المتتبع لأخبار ديك الجن الحمصي ومسارات حياته حياته في كتب التأريخ ، سيجد أمامه خليطا غير متجانس من الأخبار والروايات التأريخية ففي الوقت التي تظهره بعض تلك الأخبار انسانا ماجنا خليعا شعوبيا (1) ، زنديقا (2)، نراه في مصادر تأريخية أخرى رجلا عفا يمتاز بفضائل جمة ، وعلى مايبدو لنا أن هذا التناقض لم يكن سوى جزء من عملية التشويه التي نالت هذه الشخصية ظلما من قبل البعض من كتاب الكتب الأدبية عن عمد وقصد ، وعن غير عمد في بعض الأحيان نتيجة لنقل بعض الأخبار المسيئة له من دون تحقيق وتمحيص .
إن الهدف من كتابة هذا البحث كان لإماطة اللثام عن الحقائق التي أخفت ولاتزال عن شخصية ديك الجن الحقيقية آملين أن نصل في بحثنا الى هذه النتيجة ..

Studying the efficient on the Arabic text I analyses phenomenon voice

Afzen Zaraa; Radya Kareme .Msc

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 34, Pages 91-126

إنّ دراسة الأصوات ومميزاتها العلمية واللسانية وما يعرف بالصوتيات قديم في تراثنا الإسلامي، وقد تطرق العلماء من العرب، والهنود، واليونانيين، والفرس قديماً، وعلماء الغرب حديثاً إلیدراسةالأصواتوجوانبهاالمختلفة. فظهرتشتیالدراساتمرتكزةعلیأصوللغوية،وبلاغية،وتجويدية،وعلمية،وفيزيائيةونصية ...إلخ. ومنالطبيعيأننواجهفيالنظرياتالتيظهرتيوماًبعديوممعاييرومصطلحاتمتشابهةتحثّالإنسانعلىمعرفةمايميّزنظرية عن الأخرى.
تهدف هذه الدراسة إلى مقارنة بين فاعلية نحو النص والبلاغة العربية في تحليل الظواهر الصوتية وتبيين مختلف الطرق التي يسير عليها كل من البلغاء وعلماء النص في التحليل بمنهج وصفي- تحليلي. فيتمّ التركيز في هذا المجال على تعريف الظواهر الصوتية المشتركة بين البلاغة العربية ونحو النص وتحديد نقاط الاتفاق والافتراق بينهما عند تحليل النصوص الأدبية، وذلك في إطار تحليل نص أدبي بليغ، وسفر عظيم نهج البلاغة.
من أهم ما توصلت إليه الدراسة هو اختلاف البلاغة ونحو النص في الوظيفة والهدف والأسلوب ولزوم الانتباه لفاعلية كل علم واستعماله في موضعه، وتقدير معطيات تراثنا العلمي الغالي. فما يهمّ نحو النص هو الأسس التي تؤدّي إلى تكوين الترابط والتماسك بين أجزاء النص، بينما تركز البلاغة على ما يجعل الكلام أكثر رونقاً وأتمّ جمالاً وأشدّ وقعاً في النفوس.

The Poet of Nazek AL mlaaka in social literary criticism

Jwad Sadwn

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 34, Pages 127-148

Many contemporary poets have been interested in social issues, and this is especially evident in their poetry. These poets included Nazik Malikah, a contemporary Iraqi poet, and she made many achievements in the area of social criticism in general. Most of her poetry was based on the statement of alienation and nostalgia, political and social issues, emotional poetry, human and life, death and life, exploration of happiness, and ideals. In the field of social criticism, the poet addressed the issue of women's liberation and the concept of freedom and the relationship of literature to societies and other topics. They presented important books in these fields such as: love of night, shrapnel and ashes, tragedy of life and song of life, prayer and bull, issues of contemporary poetry I tried to illustrate the violent reality in Arab and Islamic society. The attempt in this article is the expression of social criticism in the poetry of Nazik al-Malakah, which has become clear about death, poverty, war and destruction, human and human, laments of the mother and cities, , Women, Unity and Peace Followed by: Naz criticism, poetry, Aharh.almroh,angels , social criticism , poetry, Aharh.almroh

Contiguity in conten mental for Three Lamyat (Arab,Persan , and Turk) in behavecomparative

Mahmod Haydery; Maryam Eshrak Bor Msc

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 34, Pages 149-178

The conflict between ancient literary works has been a common phenomenon in the literature, and the Arabs had a special interest in writing conflicts ،quintupling, splitting and creating assimilation of the idols and imitation of it. Poets in different periods have controversy with the works of other famous poets-because of their interest in those works or in order to express their supremacy toward them.
Among the controversies that have received special attention are the lamia poems that many poets have proceeded
Like a Toghrayi controversy in the Lamia al-ajam verse with the lamia al-Arab's of Shanfara, followed by Nayer Tabrizi's controversy in his Lamia al-Turk with Lamia al-ajam.
The existence of many apparent similarities between these sayings led us to a comparative study of the intellectual axes of Lamia al-arab, Lamia al-ajam and Lamia al-Turk, then to examine the extent of the success of Lamia al-turk through its controversy.
This research is based on comparative studies of the american method as
In this school, the difference in language is not a condition and it does not deny the existence and impact of the material in question. The results of the research show that all three poets refer to some common intellectual axes and affirm them. These axes are consist of :
reaching dignity through displacement and movement, reciting amorous poems and lyric verses, the discontent of all three poets towards the place where poetry is composed, Take refuge in utopia after being exiled and feeling homesick, patience, avoid greed, and honor .All of this is the result of the common psychological conditions that the poets have been, such as the aversion to the people and dissatisfaction with the place they were at that time .Although there are similarities in these axes, the words of each poetry have their own characteristics that are specific to the speaker and in accordance with its terms. This paper proves that the controversy of Nayer poetry has been unsuccessfully proceeded because ,despite the many similarities that exist between lamiyat al-turk and two other verses, especially poetry of Toghrayi, the reader is brought to the attention of the owner of the work. The cause of it goes to that Nayer retains the two proportions between poetry and his terms, and on the other hand, his words and expressions, with some similarities, are devoted to him.

Studying The phenomenon Alnostalegya in the Poet of Mohammed Al-maghot

Eshaq Rahmany

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 34, Pages 199-210

The nostalgia of the past is a psychological state that evokes in the person unconsciously and changes into thought. In the field of literature, this situation arises for a person who has suffered from depression of the present in different ways, such as individual motives or social and political conditions in the society in which he lives;that is why he always thinks of turning back to the past and it's sweet memories.
Mohammad AlMaghout is a famous poet in contemporary arabic literature and the creator of prose poem and is the owner of the doctrine of romance. Maghout feels anxious and sad like other romantics, which makes him escape to nature or to himself and contain himself to be searched for,so he fled from reality and set off for the past world where his lost happiness is always searched. In this study, the author examined and applied the quality of nostalgia in the poetry of this Syrian poet with emphasis on analytical descriptive method. This research finds three nostalgic manifestations of nostalgia in his poetry, especially the days of childhood, utopia or human paradise, reminiscent of family members and old friends.

Semaayanat the Place in Poet )more than water sad) for Sameh Al-Qasem

Asker Ali; Mohammed Raheme

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 34, Pages 211-230

This research tries to discover place indication in one of the most poems of sameeh Al Gasem, as one the greater poets of Palestine. Time & place are two basic components in every work, and discovering their indications help us in better understanding to literary work.
This research based on scientic-critic method tries to study the place & its role in “Ashad men Al-ma hoznan” for Sameeh Al-Gasem, as one of his greatest poems and most visited by reader, and appeared for us through scientific investigation that the place has main role in discovering poet purposes. The poem is started with closed place full of despair “land, behind window” and ended with closed ones, and through poem, places denote prison & despair overcome places denote freedom & revolution & optimism. This means overcoming the realistic aspect the revolutional one, and denote that the poet attitude toward the revolution issue has been changed somehow, if it was based on unrealistic aspect

Imam Al-Mahdi waiting from viewing of Poet Modern Persian

Teba Sayfe; Kayre Morady

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 34, Pages 231-250

Expectation of the promised is a great religious belief for the Shias. This belief reinforces the hope and happiness in the Muslim’s hearts, So as to the hope of the future and the happiness in the future can alive the hearts. Since the literature specially poem can specify the route to the knowing of the Imam Mahdi ‘the savior of the human’ the savior who fills the earth from the justice when it was full of the oppression.
Praise of the Prophet and his family is a common issue at the most of the poems of the Persian poets, but rarely a poet can be found which created an independent poem for the praise of Imam Mahdi. The praise about him was between the other themes. So the poems about Imam is rarely created by the poets independently, and the old poets like Attar Neishabouri and Nezami Ganjavi created some speeches among their poems. The contemporary poets created many poems to praise the Imam directly or indirectly. The revolution of the Islamic republic of iran in 1979 had a great influence for the contemporary poets to approach the Imam Mahdi in their poems. This paper tends to research the viewpoints of the Iranian contemporary poets about the Imam Mahdi to present the various aspects of their viewpoints for the readers and also tends to introduce their methods of expression of the Imam’s role and his introduction to the future generation

Efficiency of healthy Service in Al-Dora

Ali Lafta; Mazin A. Al-hiti

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 34, Pages 251-286

Through the study and analysis of the health fact to the municipality dawra we found that there is difference in spatial distribution of health compared with numbers of population this is negatively reflected at efficiency of the services given to the citizens and through the criteria planning and depend by the Iraqi Ministry of Health it becomes clear that the municipality with out of hospitals and dispensary which is specialized in this field in fact (3) hospitals distributed according to the quantity of population this is reflected at the increased one area which located for health purposes . also there is a shortage in the number of quantity of dispensaries according regular criteria that means there is a shortage about (29) dispensary approximately health centers. For the sack of increasing the efficiency of this service we should reconsidered spatial distribution of health services and raise the standared level of services in respect of (hospitals and health centers) this is due to increasing of population and the growing urgent need for its population.

Appearance of Imam Ali in Al-azrya Poet for Mohammed Kathem in viewing region

Mosa Araby; Zahraa Hashmi Msc

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 34, Pages 287-302

History of eulogy and praise to favorite personalities comprises a wide expanse of literature and poetry. Writing poetry of eulogy and elegy began from outset of Islam and had an unremitting process up to now expert for Baniomayeh Tyranny and opperession during Abbasid era. Mohammad Kazem Azriyeh is one of the greatest poet of Iraq in 12th and 13th century of hijri who is more popular for his eulogy prophet Mohamad and his family (Ahlolbayt)(PBUH) compared to his other poetic Techniques and has composed the eminent eulogy named "Alazriyeh" or "Al-ha-ee-yeh"of which only 580 stanzas are available.
This research attempts to study Amiralmomenin profile adopting a descriptive-analytical method through existing religious intertextualities in this eulogy. intertextuality is aterm occurred in west and found its way into Arabic literature as well.
Religious intertextuality is the most significant one with the Iraqi poet and this lead us tom explore this genre of literature in Azriyeh eulogy. The results of this research suggest that intertextual relationship of Sheikh Azry (the present text) with Quran and Ahadith (absent text) is sometimes intentional and direct while uninternational or indirect in other occasions.
The present research shows the depth of belief, faith and scope of religious knowledge and ultimately religious worldview of the poet as highlighted in his poetry.

The phenomenon of repetition when Abu Alaa Al-Maari in "chapters and ends"

Zahra Q.Madoni

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 34, Pages 303-322

التكرار ظاهرة أسلوبية عرفها البلاغيون في كل عصورها. و له أنواع مختلفة من الحرف و الاسم و الفعل و العبارة. و هو الذي له دلالات مختلفة عند الأدباء باستخدامه . فالمعري من الذين استعمله في كتابه المسمي بالفصول و الغايات بكثرة فلا يحصره علىالتكرارات المعهودة من التكرار اللفظي بل يركز علىالتكرارات المعنوية مثل الترادف و مراعاة النظير و التكرار التصاعدي و... فيهدف هذا المقال الى تعريف التكرار في البداية و من ثم يوضح المراد منه عند المعري و أنواعه المختلفة لديه بذكر النماذج و الدلالات التي جعلت المعري يلجأ الىأنواعهالمختلفة. و المنهج الذي اخترته هو المنهج التحليلي الذي ينطلق من بيئة النص مستخرجا أنواع التكرار من كتاب الفصول و الغايات. يمكن القول إن أبا العلاء يركز علىالتكراراللفظيمنالحرفوالكلمةوالجملةوالاشتقاقيوالتصديرو كذلك علىالتكرارالمعنويمن مراعاة النظير و التصاعدي و الترادف و... إلا أنه يهتم بتكرار المعنى أكثر بكثير من تكرار اللفظ. و كان يسعىمنخلالاستخدامهالىإظهارمقدراتهاللغوية.

Motif color and its implications in contemporary Iraqi poetry - Adnan Sayegh model

Mohammed jwad Esmail; Malek Sami Msc

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 34, Pages 323-346

Search for a single Motif With great interest in European literary criticism As an effective element in criticism and analysis of literary texts. And the origin of a word Motif France In literature, it means the main idea or theme that repeats in the literary output, the individual singular or the motivation and the motivation. Motifs The poetry of the poet bears connotations and connotations that are closely related to the poet's psychology, orientations and opinions. Anyone who is browsing the works of the contemporary Iraqi poet Adnan Sayegh will discover his creativity in employing Motif and his insistence on repeating some important and exciting aspects of his life. One color is Motifs Which received great attention by the Iraqi poet Adnan Sayegh and showed us paintings painted in various colors of his homeland and his psychological conditions such as love and hope, grief and pain, worries and despair, revenge and calamities, wilt, death and the courtyard and others. By studying the color in Adnan al-Sayegh hair, both directly and indirectly, he is more fond of black And gave him various indications and signs, mostly negative, using the occasions of grief and Motif not desired, the poet of the other colors of multiple goals in order to disclose his feelings and events in his country, Iraq, the grave will explain in this modest study. This article, which was adopted in the descriptive-analytical approach, aims to reveal the phenomenon of Motif colors and their implications in the poetry of Adnan Sayegh.

The German orientalist Julius Flahausen and his novels about the Islamic economy in the Umayyad period (a study in the reality of the presentation of novels and the problem of interpretation)

Waffa Adnan Hamed

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 34, Pages 347-366

The current study handles one of the most prominent figure of Germany Orientation School ( Julius Filhawzin)( 1260-1327 AH /1844-1918 AD) and his novels about the Islamic economy in the Umayyad Era . The significance of the research lies in the critical and scientific value for this orientalist who specialized into the religious matters. This importance gets increased when the orientalist delved deeply into the financial and economic matters concerning over the Islamic religion ; besides , he handled many critical opinions about the Financial policy of Caliphates along with their economic policy. Moreover , Julius Filhawzin attributed the deterioration of the Umayyad State to the mistaken financial policy adhered by caliphates of Bini Umayyad. We have concluded in this current study that the opinions of Julius were a critical attempt for the state conditions and we have preserved some opinions that being mentioned within this research , where Julius has claimed that the wars of liberation and victories were only of economic impression as to get booties. As we see that most of opinions about him mentioned in the Islamic references and he interpreted a number of tales in unreal method.

Karem trade since the late seventh century AH until the ninth / thirteenth centuries AD until the 14th century in the countries of the Middle East

Najeah Jamel

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 34, Pages 367-384

The terms of Al-Karem, Traders and Al-Karemiah had emerged since the last quarter of the Hijra Seventh century. The thirteen century. These terms referred to a group of traders form the Indian subcontinent. They formed a large power of money in the era of Mamluk in Egypt and Syria. Egypt was represented the main center of these traders as they were called "Al-Karemiah" They had a base which from it they wen to Mediterranean Sea countries. They had another bases in Yemen and Haghramawt for receiving goods and equipment which called "alKarim" to the north of Africa, India and the middle countries in Asia. They were main centers for trading distribution.
The available references had mentioned those sellers, their lives, their families and their societal connection. They were making strong groups through the societal ties with each other which strengthen by the marriage and relatively connection. It seemed that the Mamluk in Egypt were standing against those rich sellers, so they took their properties and possessions for making them powerless and wear. They destroyed their trading houses by forcing them to pay taxes or seizing their possess ons directly. This was the general behavior in Mamluk policies, even if there was a difference from one Sultan to another.

Controversy in the shape contrast in the design of magazine covers

Siham Mohsen Kitan

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 34, Pages 385-430

إن الجدل من المفاهيم العلمية التي رافقت وجود الإنسان ودخل تفرعات حياته وهومصطلحيونانييعنيأصلاًفنالحوارأوالنقاش. وهوعلمالقوانينالأكثرعموميةالتيتحكمالطبيعةوالمجتمعوالفكر‘‘نشأالجدلفياليونانمعالفيلسوفزينونالإيلي فيالقرنالخامسقبلالميلاد،وقدكانتأغاليطهنماذجمنالجدلالجادالتياستثارتفلاسفةعصرهللردعليها,لكنهذاالجدلالذيكانفناًللتحاوربغيةالوصولإلىالحقيقة،بطرحالفكرة,والفكرةالمضادةلهاعنطريقالسؤالوالجواب،تحولمعالسفسطائيين إلىمنهجمهنيتعليمينقدي،ووسيلةلعببالألفاظلإخفاءالحقيقة،ثمجاءتهكمسقراط صورةمتقدمةلجدلزينون. فأصبحأسلوبتفكيرومنهجتوليدللحقيقة،وذلكبتوجيهالأسئلةللخصموتوليدالإجاباتعليها’’ )54, ص123) ان الجدل يتخذ شكل يتسم بالنقاشات المستفيضة التي يتولد عنها أراء تختلف فيما بينها وهذا ما ظهر في حوارات الفلاسفة ومنهم( هيجل) الذي رسم الخطوط الأولى له وأطلق عليه ‘‘ المنهج الجدلي وهو منهج يدمج بين التحليل والتأليف في كل خطوة من خطوات سيره وهو المنهج الديالكتيكي الطابع،، (19 , ص50) ولقد اثر هذا المنهج في حياة الناس لكونه جعلهم يبحثون عن العلل والأسباب في اغلب أمورهم ومن خلال الاستطلاع الذي قامت به الباحثة للمطبوعات التي يتسم تصميمها على وفق تكوينات شكلية ,لها دور ايجابي واخر سلبي يتمخض عنه فكر تبادلي بين الديالكتيك الصاعد والهابط على مستوى البناء الشكلي , الذي يتولد عنه توافقات شكلية وأخرى تكاملية , ينتج من مجموعة العناصر الجزئية ...وبذلك عدت مشكلة البحث بتساؤل الأتي :هل ان جدل التضاد الشكلي بين ( العناصر التيبوغرافية)* له فاعلية في جذب المتلقي؟

Ahmed bin Hilal al-Abartae Between attenuation and documentation

Abdul-Sada Mohammed Attieh

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 34, Pages 431-438

تعتبر السّنّة الشّريفة أحد مصدري التّشريع والثّقافة الإسلامية، وهي تتلو القرآن الكريم في كونها الرّصيد العلميّ الّذي تتوارثه الأجيال إلى أن يرث الله الأرض ومن عليها.
وتعتمد السّنة الشّريفة على النّقل والإسناد عبر رجال تحمّلُوا مسؤولية الاستماع والتّلقِي والحفظ والنّقل إلى الأجيال اللاحقة.
وقد اجتمعت عدّة عوامل تاريخية أدّت إلى تسرّب الضّعف إلى إسناد الأحاديث، ممّا حدى بالعلماء إلى التّصدي لتقويم رجال الإسناد لغرض التّثبت من طرق الرّواية.
ولهذا دونت الأصول الرجالية التي اهتمت برصد الرواة وتصدّت لبيان وثاقتهم أو ضعفهم ومدى إِمكان الاعتماد على روايتهم.
من هنا كانت هذه الترجمة الوافية لأحد رجال أسانيد الأحاديث الشّريفة الواردة عن أهل البيت  ألا وهو: (أحمد بن هلال العَبَرْتائي) وقد انتظم هذا البحث على مقدمة ومبحثين هما

The morphology of the village in the countryside of Abbasiyah Abu Gharb village is a model

Rahim Mohammed Abd Zaid Al-Abdali

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 34, Pages 439-456

Morphology of the village in the countryside of Abo Gharb model
Geography of rural settlement is on of types of human geography , Which emerged in the second half of the twentieth century , As for the morphology of the village , it is one of the most important topics that study the subject of rural settlement , Because it is studying some of the important elements in the village , such as the village plan , land use and the type of rural housing .
As for the study area , it is the village of Abo Gharb , which is one of the most important villages of the Abbasid district as one of the three agricultural areas of kufa and is the back of the agricultural city of kufa , including the field crops.
The study examined three axes. The first axes came with the plan of the village . The second dealt with the fabric of the village and its dwellings . The third axis examined the uses of rural land inside the village .
The study concludes with a number of conclusions, in order to overcome the difficulties faced by the researcher in the lack of resources around the village.

The uses and innovations achieved for Baghdad's public from the new media and the traditional media -A comparative survey study

Hussein Nasser

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 34, Pages 457-490

- The research aims to study the uses of the audience for new and traditional media and the motives that lie behind it, and what is gratification that achieved by using every kind of media, whether traditional or new media.
- To achieve this goal, the researcher studied the functions of the media (such as information, education, and entertainment).
- To explore the gratification achieved by the traditional and new media in the field of functions of mass communication, and to explore the preference of audience for the types of communication medium according to achieve functions of mass media
- Therefore, the researcher developed a set of hypotheses to test the tendency and preference of the audience to measure the level of gratification achieved by both the new and traditional media and range of success for each of them in accomplish of communication functions toward audience.
- The hypotheses developed by the researcher are:
- The first hypothesis: "The audience tends to the new media for gratification the needs related to knowledge"
- The second hypothesis: "The audience tends to the new media with regard to gratification the needs related to education"
- The third hypothesis: "The audience tends to the new media for gratification the needs related to entertainment"
- The fourth hypothesis: "The audience tends to the new media for gratification the needs related to the latest news and news coverage"
- The fifth hypothesis: "There are differences of statistical significance between the age categories, as younger age category tend to the new media, while older age category tends to traditional media"
- The sixth hypothesis: " There are differences of statistical significance between exposure to the new media and the characteristic of interaction and participation"
- The Seventh Hypothesis: There are differences of statistical significance between exposure to the new media and the freedom of expression"
- The eighth hypothesis: " There are differences of statistical significance between exposure to the new media and the ability to access the sources of information"
- The Ninth Hypothesis: " There are differences of statistical significance exposure to new media and ease of use it"
- The final results indicate that all hypotheses is truth, as the audience prefer the new media because of its ability of achieve all mass media functions: inform, education, entertainment, access to information, and The final results of the research confirmed truth of the fifth hypothesis that is the younger age category prefer new media

New global variables And ways of strategic planning for development

el Salem Jamil

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 34, Pages 491-518

This research presents scientifically and deliberately stages of strategic planning to achieve whole progression.
The first section of this research states these three stages, whereas, the second section point out future vision for the progression according to its their financial and unfinancial requirements.
The third section presents progression in regard to Islamic idea and economic designs, So, the last section presents the most important universal modern changes (Globalization) and economic developments to cope with it to benefit from strategic planning to perform whole progression.

The concept of controversy between Plato and Aristotle

Saleh Mahdi Jaber Al-Dhalimi

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 34, Pages 519-548

We tried in this study to shed light on the concept of Dialectics when both (Plato and Aristotle), as is the concept of the Dialectics of the important and effective concepts in philosophy and cognitive domain, as was highlighted at the beginning of philosophical thought systematic since its inception with (Zeno of Elea) down to ( Aristotle), the concept of the Dialectics has seen significant abuse when used (sophists)as a means to convince people and the ways contrived that are in line with the fancy of physical and benefits have fired on them that they are or claim to wisdom, and in the context of follow us to the concept of Dialectics when (Plato) and Aristotle we dealt with the most important perceptions have since used Plato controversy for knowledge and access to the realities of things by classifying concepts and divided, and considered too approach that brings the mind of the perceived to reasonable and then get off the mind of highest ideals and down the, as he considered the art of throwing the questions and answers, and then came the turn of (Aristotle), which the latest of many scientific and variables storm in the overall science and the arts, and this is what led to the prosperity of the concept of the Dialectics as a means of training the thinking has been placed among the philosophical concepts by which they can realize the realities of things or accessed in ways evidentiary, and all this cannot be reached without following the laws and mechanisms established by (Aristotle) in his book he called (Tobiqia), as opposed Aristotle In many of( Plato) teacher positions around ConceptDialectics, saying that the Dialectics could not get to, but the stuff without the use of tools on which the Dialectics, such as the definition and the induction and measurement, unlike (Plato), which was adopted on division and separation and so a lot of notes which is set against Plato .

THE FIGURE OF THE EXISTENTIAL OUTCASTIN THOM GUNN'S EARLYPOETRY

Qassim Salman Serhan; Nadhim Fadhil Kadhim

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 34, Pages 9-22

Thom Gunn (1929-2004), baptized Thomson William Gunn, kept moving from one poetic mould into another, rejecting to commit himself to any school. He experienced bothBritishandAmericantraditions,but he refused to be under the garment of either. Instead, he preferred to call himself an Anglo-American poet forging as such a bridge between the two trends. In addition, Gunn was fascinated by Existentialism, which urged him to employ the figure of the existential outcast thatlies at the centreofhis poetry and reflects much of his personality and attitudes towards his surroundings.

An Investigation of the Relationship between Phonetics and Phonology

Fareed Al-Hindawi; Hussein Dhahi Muzhir Al-Hassnawi; Hani K. Al-Ebadi

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 34, Pages 23-32

This paper investigates the controversial issue of therelationship between Phonetics and Phonology. Throughout literature, there are different views and opinions that tackle this relationship, but none of them is adopted as the acceptable one. This is so because each has evidence as well as its merits and demerits. Generally, three main views about the relationship between phonetics and phonology can be introduced: they are the same, they are different but arbitrarily related , they are different but conditionally integrated.

Water supplysystemduring theSassanid dynastyand Islamicera of Arjan City

EbrahimRaygani

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 34, Pages 33-50

Southwesternparts of Farsprovince, officially entitled Argan (Arjan), received attention of the dominant governments inSassanid dynastyand from the early centuries to mid-centuries oftheIslamicera due to its privileged naturaland geographical situation. The central city of this well-known province was called Argan or Arjan. The most importantfactor forthe prosperity ofthis city was thepropercommunication status, as well as the naturaltalents available there such asTabRiverwhichflewthroughthecity. The founders of the city used indoorandundergroundcanal system to utilize the water of the aforementioned river for household andagricultural consumptions. Historical and geographicalsources have briefly described this water supply system andirrigationsystem. Seriousarchaeological studieshave not been conductedin this area. Fieldsurveys conducted within the city and surrounding areashas shown that the consumption of thewater of Tab River has been done by means of the famous dam of Argan. In addition, the water required for the surrounding orchards and gardens had been running from behind the dam towards the city via numerous channels like Qanats. This method led to the prosperity and cultivation of the agricultural economy and also welfare of thecitizensin hot seasons of the year. The above-mentioned irrigation and water supplysystemswere greatly used until thecompletedestructionof the city. After the destruction ofArgan dam, the channels became out of Fashion andnew systemsreplacedthepreviousmethods

Linguistic Deviations in Virtual Discourse: A Computer-Mediated Approach

Musaab A. RaheemAlkhazaali

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 34, Pages 51-62

Virtual discourse is related to the new trends of using technology in communication. As such, different types of virtual discourse have been adopted such as electronic messaging, computer-mediated texts, e-mail messages and the like. These kinds of discourse are surely characterized by specific linguistic features that are different from the normal ways of speaking and writing. It is supposed that there are deviant manifestations in such discourse. This study is an attempt to investigate linguistic deviations in virtual discourse. Thus, it aims to answer the following questions:
What kinds of linguistic deviation are there in virtual discourse?
What is the value of such deviations?
The current paper is structured as follows: section 1 is an introduction; sections 2&3 present a theoretical background on both virtual discourse and linguistic deviation; section 4 is devoted to data analysis, results and discussion; finally, section 5 summarizes the most important conclusions.

Assessing teaching efficiency of headmasters from the perspective of learners (Evidence from Nehbandan Province)

Khadijeh alipiur Moghadam; Fatemeh Zeynoddini Meymand

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 34, Pages 63-70

Headmasters are one of the main basis of the educational systems. To remove the deficiencies and identify the existing limitations, the headmasters are required to have several teaching hours in any week. This is because the headmasters oversee the school and are responsible to identify the talents of the students. The present study seeks to evaluate teaching efficiency of the headmasters from the perspective of the students of secondary schools of Nahbandan over the years from 2014 to 2015. Using stratified sampling, 278 students of secondary school are selected and the questionnaire is found to be reliable (Chronbach’s alpha: 0.89). The findings reveal that from the perspective of the students, teaching efficiency of the headmasters is less than average. In addition, males and females have significantly different perspectives. Therefore, the headmasters are not qualified for teaching and have no good yield

Investigating the role of gender in the relationship between narcissism and perception of athletes in Sanandaj

SoranMowlaie; ServehHejrat; SetarehAlmasi; JamileAhmadian; TooranAlipoor

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 34, Pages 71-80

One of the symptoms of the health of the soul is to know ourselves as we are and since the body's overall form is part of the composition of your physique, society’s too much attention to athletes might cause the emergence of the sense of narcissism in them. Based on this probability, the present descriptive and field-based study investigates the relationship between narcissism and physical perception of athletes based on gender differences. The statistical population of the research includes all athletes active in sports clubs (gymnastics and aerobics) in Sanandaj, of which 294 volunteers were selected as the sample. The findings of the study indicated that there is a significant relationship between narcissism and physical perception in male and female athletes. For female athletes, their self-esteem was correlated with a correlation coefficient of 0.683 and for male athletes with a correlation coefficient of 0.734. In general, it can be deduced that extreme dissatisfaction with appearance may conceal mental illness, and disregarding it may have serious medical consequences.

Persian Literature in the World literature

Maryam Kalati

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 34, Pages 81-92

The subject of the present research is in the field of comparative literature. It aims at studying and analyzing the effect of Persian literature, especially Maulana’s works, on the authors, thinkers, and translators. In the present study, it is attempted to know the great English and American literary figures who have provided outstanding works through translation or adaptation and they have played a great role in knowing the Persian literature and making it known in the English-speaking countries.
Maulana is the well-known Iranian poet and mystic of the seventh century hegira. He is mostly known for his mystic poems. He is indeed one of the great Sufi poets. His simple and appealing words are associated with a fervent love and zeal. His soft language and charming words arising from his broken heart express the mystic facts in a special way. His view toward allegories and mentioning different parables and tales while expressing a mystic subject has simplified the intentions of the khanqah’s hermits for the ordinary people(1).
Since the 18th century, Maulana Jalaluddin Balkhi’s Masnavi has been translated to various European languages, including and most specifically English. The process of translating Masnavi, alongside other poems of Maulana, has been accelerated over the last two decades. Given the wide range of fans of his works all over the world, the translation of Maulana’s works has been developed both in quality and quantity. However, these translations are not the same authority. The first English translations of Masnavi were done by Whinfield, Wilson, and Nicholson. These translations enjoyed a high level of accuracy and faithfulness. The contemporary translations, preferring words to sense, are seeking to attract more readers to the extent that some of them, such as Barks’ and Helsinki’s, are rewritings of the previous translations. One of the newest translations is a poetic one done by Mojaddedi. Being faithful and transferring the concepts to the maximum, this translation creates a better communication between Maulana and the English readers through the poetic techniques used in this version (2).