Analysis of the word (Ajm) in the words of the Prophet "Who learns the Koran and then forgot to meet God on the Day of Resurrection

Hassin Khakbor; il Ahmadzahi; Isma; Asma Eranmanesh

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 36, Pages 11-28

Monotheistic invitation of all the prophets were associated with a variety of language conflict and hostility that different doubts can be outlined one of their most basic plans. Conflict (doubt) of Being human of the Prophets and also denying their relationship with God is of the most pervasive doubts about the many prophets. Analyzing the Quran verses shows that the doubt of being human about the prophet is of the most fundamental human suspicions of the Prophet, and other charges are derivatives of this doubt. Today, a lot of doubts and accusations in the form of scientific debate arise about the Islam Prophet that derivative of this doubt. In Holy Quran, being human doubt of the prophet is narrated specifically for the Islam prophet and generally for other prophets. Analyzing of the Quran verses shows that unbelief, obstinacy and stubbornness, ignorance about the different levels of human beings is of important motives of opponents and designers of doubt.

The city and the splendor of the Andalusian Huete (93-568h / 711-1172 m)

Jassem Yassin Al - Darwish; Hussein Jabbar Al-Olawi

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 36, Pages 29-60

The city of Andalusia lies to the east of Toledo and to the west of the city of Cantabria in the Andalusian region, occupied by the Muslims under the leadership of Tariq ibn Ziad in 93 AH / 711 AD. It was settled by Muslims, mostly Berbers who reconstructed the city, and then became one of the important cities of occupation, led by Bani al-Nun and the family of Bani Labun. The city fell in the hands of Christians in 478 AH / 1085 AD.
After the fall of Toledo in 478 AH / 1085 AD, it became a central point of the Islamic-Christian conflict, and the confrontations continued until the middle of the sixth century AH / 1200 AD when the conflict was finally resolved in favor of the Christians by the defeat of Muhideen in 568 AH. After this, the Christians controlled most of the region of central Andalusia.

Al-Adhash" and "Intensification" in the works of Juma'a Al-Fakhri ("Thabra" and "Sahab Mask" groups)

Framers Mirzaye; Adnan Zamani; Yousef Gharbawi

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 36, Pages 61-88

تُعتبر تقانتا الإدهاش والتكثيف من أهمّ تقانات القصّة القصيرة جدًّا، فعنصر الإدهاش يأتي في القصّة القصيرة جدًّا كخاتمة تتّضح فيها معالم القصّة ورؤى القاصّ، ومن سمات هذا العنصر وخصائصه هو أنّه يأتي مخالفا لسياق الحركة الدّلاليّة للحكاية وبهذا يكون مغايرا ومربكا لأفق انتظار القارئ، كما أنّ تقانة التكثيف هي التي تميّز هذا الجنس الأدبي من غيره من الأجناس الأدبيّة. انطلاقا من هذه الأهميّة جاءت هذه الدراسة لتسلّط الضوء على هاتين التقنيتين في الأعمال القصصيّة لـ"جمعة الفاخري" بهدف معرفة حجم إسهامات هاتين التقنيتين في نجاح القصّة القصيرة جدًّا عند أحد أعلامها في المغرب العربي، ونظرا إلى كثرة كتابات جمعة الفاخري في هذا الجنس الأدبي فقد ركّزت الدراسة على مجموعتي "عصير ثرثرة" و"سحابة مسك" كنموذجٍ لباقي أعماله القصصيّة، وتقوم هذه الدراسة على المنهج الوصفي- التحليلي لكشف مواقع هاتين التقنيتين، ثم بيان دورهما في إنجاح عمليّة القصّ السردي عند الكاتب. وقد اتّضح لنا أنّ تقانة "الإدهاش" كانت حاضرة وبقوّة في قصص جمعة الفاخري القصيرة جدًّا، وأنّ هذه التقانة تنتج عن الإضمار والغموض والحذف والتخييل وترك البياضات الفارغة واصطناع لغة المفارقة و... لخلخلة ميثاق التلقي وإرباك القارئ وتبديد أفق انتظاره وتوقعه، هذا بالإضافة إلى تقانة التكثيف التي ساهمت في إضفاء الحركيّة والضغط المعنائي الناتج عن كثرة المضمون في قالب اللفظ الذي يختاره القاصّ، كما تنوّعت أشكال التكثيف عند الفاخري ما بين تكثيف دلالي وبنائي وسيكولوجي. وعند مناقشة الأساليب البلاغية والفنية في قصص الكاتب وجدنا أنها كانت متنوعة ما بين التناص والحوار والانزياح والتضاد، والتناص لدى الفاخري وظف خدمة للتكثيف، فيما وجدنا الحوار والانزياح والتضاد قد خدمت تقانة الإدهاش ودورها.

The aspects of the heuristic inference and its functions in the short closed Qur'anic story The story of the Prophet Sulaiman with the Queen of Sheba is a model

Aqeel Abdul - Zahra Al - Khakani; Ban Amin Ameer Al- Rubaie

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 36, Pages 89-104

If the argumentation -from a linguistic perspective- is a prominent feature in the language of natural discourse, the fact of inference of this discourse is that it's an argumentative inference, not logical demonstrative , Accordingly, it will depend on various speech strategies and various stylistic techniques that represent the aspects of the inductive structure of argumentation. The linguistic structure in which the manifestations have an argumentative function, which directs the addressee to deduce the appropriate result for the speaker intent. In this context, the research seeks to clarify the aspects of the argumentative inference in the story of the Prophet Suleiman and the Queen of Saba'a , and statement of the argumentative functions which the structure of pronounced was implied it, then reach the intentions of the narrative discourse in the Holy Quran.

The aesthetic use of scientific terminology and the manipulation of words and letters in the office of Ibn Nabata

Ahmed Karimi; Syed Mahmoud Mirzaei Al-Husayni; Ayad Nisi

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 36, Pages 105-136

Ibn-e- Nubata lived in the era of tents using the virtuosity of words and the decoration of words and recitation of the literature in general literature and poetry especially. The poets have become more eloquent than their virtues in their productions, and the resort to industry and cost has become a prominent feature in contemporary literature and a far-off course to highlight the literary ability and linguistic richness of poets and writers.
Ibn-e- Nubata Al mesry was not immune to this tendency. But it is going to be treated and swallowed to become a distinctive character of his poems. Sometimes they are tempted by the verbal enhancers and employ them to press some of his poems and we are exposed to it once, as he manipulates the words and the letters, separates them, interrupts them sometimes, and pronounces them to produce new words that enrich his poetic output, And to be a manifestation of his linguistic ability and flexibility in the conduct of words and their manipulation and manipulation, And may see him in many of his poems tend to language terms and borrow from the poetic material to express his concerns and what is boiling in his chest of emotions and pain, and to whiten the meaning or import in a new way that makes the reader pause a little to stand on the poet Murad. It is not hidden to the reader that the study of these terms reveal some of the hidden ideas and ideas and reveals the extent of his knowledge of the sciences that employed the terms in his poetry, and show how the poet was able to employ the grammar and especially the grammar to increase meanings and generate old meanings and create Poetic images
Hence, this research depends on the use of terms in poetry, focusing on grammar and morphology, as well as manipulation of letters and words.

The growth of human thought in the poetry of Zuhair bin Abi Salma and Abi Tammam (reading in the structural integration between the introduction and the contents of the poetic text)

Atef Mohamed Kanaan

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 36, Pages 137-184

The present research has aimed at reading the humanitarian concept in the Arabic poetic discourse and has delineated themes at the beginnig of the poems by Zuhair Bin Abi sulma and Abu Tammam It has furnished a critical reading in the poetic lines of the Arabic poems and has studied man and life in those in sample Introductory lines , especially by Abu Tammam and has addressed the critical problems posed by the modern critics concerning the poetic beginnings old poetry which have not received sufficient attention in modern linguistic criticism. The research has revealed that Zuhiar and Abu Tammam have established an artistis , cognatre milestone in the human thought which can be invested by generastions of knowledgeable and men of letters and pared the way to developing human it Arian fruitful thought.

Studying in Arabic Persian Dictionary focusing on Persian dictionary for Ibrahim Al-desoky

Mohsen M.Fsharky; Sumaya hassanalyan

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 36, Pages 185-208

قد ألحت ضرورة تعليم ونقل المفاهيم والمعاني من لغة إلي لغة أخري تدوين المعاجم الثنائية اللغة، وبما أن هذا الأمر يتعلق أحيانا بلغتين تنتميان إلي أسر لغوية مختلفة فيقتضي الدقة البالغة ويواجه المشاكل والصعوبات التي لا بد منها. وعلى المعجمي أن يكون متقنا في اللغتين وخبيرا بالمناهج الخاصة لتأليف المعجم وإستراتيجيات كتابته، وعالما بالنظريات اللغوية لإنتاج معجمات أفضل، لأن صناعة ‌المعجم (Lexicography) تندرج تحت علم اللغة التطبيقي؛ إذ يهتم بالجانب العلمي للغة إلي جانب فروع اللسانيات التطبيقية مثل المصطلحية، علم اللغة الآلي، علم اللغة النفسي و... وكذلك أن هذا العلم يرتبط بعلوم شتي كعلم الدلالة، والنحو، والصرف، والأدب و.. وعدم الاهتمام بمثل هذه القضايا قد يؤدي إلي نواقص في المعاجم ويجعل تيار البحث يسير بطيئا.
من هذا المنطلق ونظرا لأهمية المعاجم في تعليم اللغة لغير الناطقين بها فيستهدف هذا البحث إلي دراسة أحد المعاجم الفارسية العربية المعنون بالمعجم الفارسي الكبير لإبراهيم دسوقي شتا دراسة نقدية مشيرا إلي أهم العيوب التي تخللت هذا المعجم القيم.

A stylistic approach to the "divisive" discourse in a rhetoric approach

Syad Mahdi masboq; Rasool Fathi Muzaffari; Jawad Mohamed Zadeh

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 36, Pages 209-232

يتألف "نهج¬البلاغة" من الخطب، والرسائل، والحكم التي تمتاز بالمعني والمضمون، والحروف والمفردات والجمل والأسلوب؛ بحيث يعدّ الجانب البلاغي فيه آيةً من آيات كلام الإمام علي() المعجز. قاربت هذه الدراسة البني الأسلوبية في إحدي خطبه الغراء المسماة بالقاصعة واعتمدت في تحليلها المعتمد علي المنهج الوصفي التحليلي علي خمسة مستويات هي الصوتي، والتركيبي، والمعجمي، والبلاغي والفكري. تكررت في المستوي الصوتي المحسنات البديعية كالطباق وتنسيق الصفات، حيث لعبت دوراً رئيساً في خلق الجو الإيقاعي، وفضلا عن ذلك أفاد الإمام() من التقنيات الأخري كالتكرار الصوتي والموسيقي اللفظية ليزيد من نغمة كلامه. وقد أفاد في المستوي التركيبي من الجمل الإنشائية والخبرية، وقصار الجمل واستخدم الأساليب الأخري كالتقديم، والحصر وأدوات التأكيد للتعبير عن معانيه المقصودة. تميزت الخطبة في المستوي المعجمي باستخدام التعابير المركبة، وخاصة التراكيب الإضافية. أما في المستوي البلاغي فاستطاع الإمام() أن يستخدم أنماطاً من التراكيب المجازية كالاستعارات التمثيلية، والإضافات التشبيهية، والكناية ليخلع علي كلامه صورة أدبية حية تدل علي مدي خياله وفصاحة لغته، كما تبيّن لنا أن الفكرة التي تتمحور عليها الخطبة هي التعبير عن المعاني التوحيدية، والاهتمام بالجهاد، والتحذير من الشيطان، ولزوم الاتحاد في المجتمع الإسلامي، والاعتبار من الماضين و فلسفة ابتلاء الله خلقه.

The alienation in the poems of Ibn Nahas

Amir Muqaddam Mottaki; Fatima Kahnsal Kashki; Ashor Flaeg Yasa; Asmael Mohamed Zadeh; Massoud Bawan Puri

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 36, Pages 233-258

of the issues of interest in poetry and literature that has always been raised throughout literary history is the issue of sophistication and grievance of society that has not been diminished in any period of the literary history, but has always been a poet who, for some reason, The phrase "lack of co-ordination with the society, domination of the ruler and failure in love, and ... the way to rumor and complaints, and this phenomenon, especially in a period in which the rulers of the community do not have sufficient authority to manage the society and their personal interests Because poetry has a strong connection with the intellectual, political, and social reality of society, and in each of the stages, Ibn al-Nohas, as one of Aleppo's poets who enjoyed a high literary taste over the poets of his age, managed to transform his social realities from the realistic viewpoint and his climate of truth. , When the Ottoman rulers dominated the country, as well as through his meditative themes, manifested his sincere spirit by expressing the annoying cries of love failure. It can be said that the failure of love is one of the important factors in the selection of Ibn Nahas.

The rhythmic formations and the consistency of the text of the pre-Islamic praise (Praise be to Usher ibn Abi Khazem to Usa al-Tai as a model)

Fouad Fayyad Shatayat

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 36, Pages 259-292

The study examines rhythm patterns and consistency of the text of praise of Bishr Ibn Abi Kazem to Awes bin Haritha bins Al -Tai in the pre-Islamic era. It also seeks to establish external rhythms : weight, synonyms, repetition or coherence, poetic structure of sounds , and the idea that empowered and motivated the poet to praise Awes Al-Tai . The study reveals that all indicators of the points listed are part of the external rhythm of the poem. However, the internal rhythm of the poem consists of the plot or spirit that spread and add flavor to the poem, organize and develop the idea in ascending or horizontal levels within the architectural backbone of the poem: from A-Z (prelude to the end of the poem). The research has two parts: The first addresses the general concept of the external and internal rhythms. The second covers the role of rhythm and repetition in shaping the poetic experience of Bishr ibn Kazem in praising Awes Ibn Harith Al-Tai, and the aesthetics or state of art of both the internal and external rhythm.

The Role of Pioneering and Leading Thinking in Enhancing the Quality of Banking Service: An Exploratory Study on a Sample of Iraqi Private Banking Officials in Najaf Governorate

Arshad Abdul Amir Jassim

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 36, Pages 293-338

يعد التفكير الريادي من المواضيع التي لاقت ولازالت تلاقي اهمالاً على مر الزمن في منظماتنا ، على الرغم من دوره الفاعل في إظهار التفوق في الأداء لكافة القوى العاملة في المنظمات بما فيها المدراء والقادة بشكل خاص ، ولا بد من أن يكون لذلك الأداء اثراً إيجابياً يعود بالنفع العام على حياة المنظمة واستمراريتها في بيئة يسودها التغير والتطور المتسارع الذي يفرض عليها أن تتكيف وتستجيب لتلك التغيرات بما يضمن تلبية حاجات الزبائن و رضاهم على أحسن وجه . ومن الجدير بالذكر أن الجودة تعد من أحد الاسبقيات التنافسية التي أضحت منظمات الأعمال بإعطائها الأولوية في أعمالها كونها تعد مدخلاً معاصراً تتبناه كفلسفة إدارية ومنهج علمي سواء كانت تلك المنظمات إنتاجية أو خدمية على حد سواء ، فالمنظمات الخدمية بصورة عامة والمصرفية بصورة خاصة تحتاج إلى التوجه نحو الجودة أي تصميم خدماتها بصورة متميزة لما افرزته الجودة من مؤشرات إيجابية في أداء عمل المنظمات وبقائها ونموها , لذلك فقد ركزت الدراسة على موضوع الريادة وبالأخص في مجال التفكير ضمن طاقات الفرد وقدراته ، فقد تم اعتماد المتغير التابع «جودة الخدمة المصرفية» التي تمثل الرمز (Xllb) ، واختيار المتغير المستقل «التفكير الريادي» والذي يرمز له (Xlla) والذي نصت عليه فرضيات الدراسة . وقد تم التعرف على آراء عينة الدراسة حولهما من خلال الخيارات المدرجة لكل منهما . شملت الدراسة أربعة فقرات رئيسية : تضمنت الأولى منهجية الدراسة ، فيما عرضت الثانية الإطار النظري الذي شمل كل من الريادة والتفكير الريادي وجودة الخدمة المصرفية ، في حين شكلت الثالثة الإطار التطبيقي للدراسة ، وأخيراً جاءت الفقرة الرابعة بالاستنتاجات وأهم التوصيات .

Problems of workers in Iraqi satellite channels and its reflection on the level of exposure of the public to the satellite channels field study of the contact person and the public in Baghdad 2014

Raad Jasim Al Kaabi

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 36, Pages 339-382

The atmosphere in which journalists work continues to develop their work, and we certainly attribute this to the performance of the medium and the level of public exposure to it.
The research problem is based on the ambiguity of the relationship between the problems experienced by workers in satellite channels and the level of exposure of the public to satellite channels. Perhaps the most important objectives are to prove the relationship between the problems of workers in satellite channels and the level of exposure of the public to the satellite channels. Adopted by the same selection of (222) members of the public as a prime eye provided they follow the same channels in which the media work. Using the means of verification of the hypotheses, the researcher found that 61% of the workers in satellite channels have problems with them, while we have a relationship between the follow-up media and the contents of the coverage remains the atmosphere of the work of journalists.

Warqa Ben Nofal historical study

Mohsen Meshjel Al hajaj

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 36, Pages 383-418

The research dealt with mysterious figure in Islamic history ,he is Waraqa Bin Nofal . Where the novels reported his relationship with prophet and exaggerated even like he became a professor of the prophet ( beace be upon him and his family ) The research started with Waqraqa Bin Nofal life before the mission and his attributed on the Islamic call . Research also touched on the political and economic reasons for novels fabricaition .Research concluded with the subject of Waraqa death

Implications of poetic ability in modern Arabic poetry (Sayab budget, Ahmed M + Tor and Mohamed Almagout)

Mahmoud Shahbazi; Qais Khazaal Talib

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 36, Pages 419-438

Composition ability and creativeness of poets expresses in the extent of their ability in innovation and using poetic imagination forms and covering concepts and ideas and also feelings that they are intending transfer to our mind, in imaginative covering and locating emotion and feeling versus that thoughts and implicit mental concepts. Therefore during their poetic innovation they are bridling the speech and employing language, words and perceptions and changing it in specific style. By using this kind of style the can mention concepts and facts distinct from superficial form of speech and words that are sorted inside of that style.That is high in comparison to language that is used in none poetry and scientific documents.
Composition ability is based on elements that skillful poets consciously need them to use in structure of literary contexts. Some kind of this elements are: ''rational displacements'', metaphors, imagination forms and creating inspirational poetic environment.From this point of view Badr Skakir al- Sayyab poem; Pioneer Arab contemporary literature poet distinct from other poets poetry because he by the aim of using literary elements and techniques banished his poetry from straight concepts and scientific and mere intellectual speech.
This gave the poet opportunity to create poetic environment and inspirational and indirect concepts to make the reader react rationally and associate mentally, while poetry of other poets such as Muhammad al-Maghut and Ahmed Matar(that is studied in this article) as a whole don't have this kind of characteristics.

Mnaqib Ahl al-Bayt in the poems of the upper Hamani Your door is full

Babik Mlaay; Mohamed Jawad Ismail Ghanmi; Abdulkarim Albagbesh

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 36, Pages 439-454

Eulogy is one of arenas of poetry temper testing. In this dominion, every poet, as much as his power and knowledge, gives a distinguished image of his adored’s goodness and excellencies. Undoubtedly, whatever the position of adored is superior, the poet’s eulogy and praise will be superior and more deserving. In the period of Abbasi, some poets, based on different motives, have chosen Ahlul-Bayt (Peace be upon them) as their adoreds, and have offered pleasant poets to the Literary arena for them. One of these famous admirers who has composed beautiful poems in praise of Ahlul-Bayt and has spoken about their prominent position as well, is Hommani Alawi. This research is done by descriptive analytical method and it is intended to study on one hand the expression of Ahlul-Bayt (Peace be upon them) in the poem of Hommani, on the other hand to investigate his poetic and artistic style in the eulogy arena.This study shows that, using verses of the Qur'an and prophetic hadiths and historical issues, Hommani has proved rightfulness of Ahlul-Bayt and by logical reasoning, reveals the true face of Ahlul-Bayt. In addition, he considers Ahlul-Bayt as only emancipator of human beings and friendship with them as welfare and he ends the hostility with Ahlul-Bayt to adversity.

The contributions of Rashid al-Din al-Suri (573-639 AH / 1177-1241 CE) in the development of the Arab Islamic civilization (botany as a model)

Hamdiya Saleh Daly

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 36, Pages 455-488

Rashid AL-Din AL-Suri is considered one of the most eminent scholars on the medical level. However, he has not been given enough attention by historians. Therefore, we have to dust these giant figures and explain their virtue in providing medical services to the community using plants and discovering their functions. And during that time he was accompanied by a painter and with him dugs, pens and ink to draw the plant at all stages of its life.
It was based on the visual logic based on the accuracy of observation, inspection and follow-up, so it left us the legacy of civilization represented by the mobile medical school, which includes dozens of scientists and doctors, as well as many of his writings in this area, which benefited the Arab world very much.

Jahdah ibn Habira Makhzoumi and his role in Islam

Said Jabbar Jeyad

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 36, Pages 489-510

The purpose of this research is to reveal the character of Ja'ada ibn Hubira Al Makhzoumi, who had a great and prominent role in the political events in Islamic history. However, this figure was not highlighted, perhaps because of his close relationship with the Prince of Believers Ali bin Abi Talib Nahl of his knowledge was trusted by the Commander of the Faithful, and was the family of Ja'ada of families interested in jurisprudence and modern science
The research also discussed the relation between the Ja'ada family and Al-Bayt Al-A, as well as the role of its children in the political and intellectual life during the Umayyad period. Trying to highlight the bright and absent aspects of the biography of Ja'ada ibn Hubira, and God behind the intent.

Channels of intellectual and spatial interaction in the Arabian Peninsula before Islam

Amal Ajil Ibrahim

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 36, Pages 511-542

In the Pre- Islamic Arab Peninsula, there were varied doctrinal and intellectual systems represent a harmonized social environment with intellectual and religious channels that participated in enrich those systems and in improve the Arab mentality via the interaction of its individual within each other. The channels connected with certain places and times such as pilgrimage, markets, the tribe assemblies, monasteries and the Christian churches. The importance of those channels are clarified by studying and dealing with the sound doctrine and rejecting paganism or idolism, as well as by the desire of the Arabs to be united in one central state.
Their importance is varied on the level of their effect on the Pre- Islam society; some of them affected most of the society, and some restricted to certain class that had all the conditions such as the intellectual awareness, reading and writing and desire to study and research about monasteries and churches.

Spatial analysis of the cultivation of grapes in the district of Manatra

Lamia Abdel Taha

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 36, Pages 543-576

Fruit trees, including grape trees, are important sources of food for humans and an important pillar of national income, both in Iraq and elsewhere. Our study of the geographical distribution of grape trees is a scientific problem that attempts to reveal the nature of its distribution and to show the natural geographical factors, In the study area at the level of administrative units, and the study through its followers steps of the scientific method of geography, whether descriptive or analytical approach to a number of conclusions in an attempt to prove the validity of the hypothesis of research. The study was able to explain the spatial variation In light of its relationship to natural and human factors. The study revealed a clear spatial variation in the characteristics of the geographical distribution of the fruit trees

The Pragmatics of Political Accusations in Obama-Romney First Presidential Debate 2012

Fareed HameedFareed Hameed Al-HindawiAl-Hindawi; Waleed Ridha Hammoodi Al-Juwaid

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 36, Pages 9-30

This study tackles political accusation in the context of Obama-Romney first presidential debate 2012. The participants in the political discourse exploit various pragmatic strategies in order to take over their opponents' arguments. Political accusation, here, is dealt with as a process rather than a product for the operationality of analyzing the data under study. It is political on the principal ground that it tackles political issues. Accordingly, this study sets itself the task of investigating how political accusation takes place in the aforementioned context. It aims, first, at identifying the pragmatic structure of political accusation, second, detecting the pragmatic strategies used by the presidential candidates in the data under scrutiny and, third, tracing whether a candidate's pragmatic strategies are different or not from the other candidate's pragmatic strategies as far as political accusation is concerned.
The hypotheses intended to be tested by this study are: first, the pragmatic structure of political accusation is composed of two stages: attack stage and defense stage, second, both stages are realized via various pragmatic strategies and, third, the use of pragmatic strategies are different from one candidate to another. For achieving the aims of the study and testing its hypotheses, an eclectic model is developed on the basis of various other models which are offered by other studies. This model is used to pragmatically analyze the data of the study. Besides, a statistic analysis by means of the percentage equation is conducted to quantitatively support the findings of the pragmatic analysis. The analyses of the data under study reveal that the hypotheses adopted are verified.

The Figure of the Mixedblood in Louise Erdrich’s Love Medicine

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 36, Pages 31-58

Native American people were encouraged by the U. S. government to leave the reservations during the 1950s and 1960s, as if the constant violation of treaty rights, compulsory attendance at boarding schools, and the near extinction of these people were not enough. Such historical, social, and cultural contexts influenced the themes and forms of works by American Indian writers who encouraged individuals to reject any sense of shame of their culture. In addition, their actions coincided with a return of the people to their traditions after the disappointment, mental illness, and loss of meaning of life resulted from the impact of the mainstream American society. Among these writers, Louise Erdrich (1954- ), a mixed-blood woman, became among the most celebrated authors. The trail blazed by N. Scott Momaday and Leslie Marmon Silko was followed by Erdrich in her writing as she shares the same interest in presenting characters who are trapped between Native traditions and white mainstream expectations.
Erdrich introduces many characters who struggle to have a voice, but they resolve their conflict by rejecting the sacrificial role assigned to mixed-blood figures, especially that of the nineteenth century. The mixed-blood figures in Love Medicine are to be seen as a source of power, something to be celebrated rather than mourned.
This paper is a part of an M.A. thesis entitled “The Cultural Crisis of Mixed-blood Figures in Indian-American Fiction: A Study of Selected Novels By N. Scott Momaday, Leslie Marmon Silko, and Louise Erdrich” prepared at the University of Al-Qadisiya, College of Education, Department of English

Analyzing Narrative Structure of “The Tale of Afshin and Boudolaf” from Bayhaqi's "History" Based on Gérard Genette’s Theory

Ahmadnoor vahidi Ahmadnoor vahidi; Mansoor Nikpanah Mansoor Nikpanah; Rasool Mohammadi Rasool Rasool Mohammadi

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 36, Pages 59-72

Analyzing the constituent elements of a narrative and representation of its governing rules help us in better understanding of mechanisms and relationships within the narrative elements. Since narratology is one of the main branches of structuralism, analyzing narrative structure of past texts and their evolution can be lead to valuable results and open new and different perspectives to audiences.Bayhaqi’s History is one of the basic texts in Persian prose. This research analyzes narrative structure of “The Tale of Afshin and Boudlof” from Bayhaqi's "History" based on the ideas of French structuralist, Gérard Genette.
The narrative levels of this work has been studied in interaction with the components of duration, mood, and voice) to uncover its specific narrative structure and Bayhaqi’s writing power in taking advantage of the possibilities of language and literary. Unlike believers in the idea that past proses of Persian literature just stories and narrations and they lack ordered structure and strong plot, this research shows the ordered structure and strong plot of the studied case according to ideas of Gérard Genette.

Assessing Eugenic Theory and Clarification of Its Moral Methods and Procedures through Religious Texts

Afzal Boluki Afzal Boluki; Mohammad Ali Moslehnezhad Mohammad Ali Moslehnezhad; Ghodsieh Akbari Ghodsieh Akbari

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 36, Pages 73-86

The subject of this study is investigating eugenic or genetic improvement as one of the most important contemporary issues of practical ethnics. Statement of the problem is as the following: is promoting genetic structure of human race possible through genetic engineering and storage of sperms of men with outstanding features in sperm banks and implanting them into the uterus of women on large scale either naturally or through artificial insemination? Improving the quality of human race and eliminating or reducing genetic defects through control of behavioral and biological changes in the human genome, it’s being good or evil and morally and religiously acceptable, is an important issue that should be explored.
The main objective of this descriptive-analytical study is, in addition to critical investigation of immoral genetic evolution, presenting a new outlook of the comprehensive religion of Islam to achieve a clean and well-educated generation and remove the defects and genetic shortcomings to acquire an ideal society. The most important result of this research is that Islam confirms genetic engineering through different methods and, even, presents several recommendations in this regard. Ignoring moral principles, identity crisis, reinforcing racism, fall of genetic knowledge, possibility of mental and psychological problems, ignoring will power, and political and social abuses are most important critiques of genetic engineering which is done through controlling and changing human gnomes.

Investigating factors causing delay in the implementation of urban development projects in the slums of Sari city

Hamed Barimani Hamed Barimani; Ali Gorji Karsami Ali Gorji Karsami

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 36, Pages 87-100

The present study was conducted in order to investigate factors causing delay in the implementation of urban development projects in the slums of Sari city. The present research is descriptive correlational in terms of method and applied in terms of objective. The statistical population of the study consists of mayors and deputies, departmental officials and all related experts of the central municipality as well as members, deputies, unit managers and experts in areas 1, 2 and 3 of Sari Municipality, the total number of whom surmounted up to 500 subjects. Based on the standard sampling table of Cohen et al., 217 individuals were selected as the statistical sample and a mixed, integrated method was used to provide access to the study sample. Required data was collected through a researcher-made questionnaire, the reliability of which, 0/86, was calculated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. In order to test the hypothesis of the research, given the normality of the data, one-sample t-test and the Friedman rank test were used to rank the variables.
The results of the research showed that organizational factors, time constraints, legal factors, contracting factors, credit and financial, accounting system, and executing projects are effective factors causing delay in the implementation of urban development plans in marginal areas of Sari. Also, the results of Friedman test have shown that organizational factors, time constraints, legal factors, respectively, have the most impact on the delay in the implementation of development projects and urban development in marginal areas of Sari.

Investigating the Themes of Vis and Ramin Story

Pouran Yousefi Pouran Yousefi; Sedigheh Dehghanzadeh Najmabad Sedigheh Dehghanzadeh Najmabad; Mostafa Esmaeilpoor Mostafa Esmaeilpoor

Adab Al-Kufa, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 36, Pages 101-116

One of the most important literary forms in Persian poetry is Epic Romance. This romantic poems, from the point of view of the type of thought and subject, include the broadest part of the literary genius, which embraces various emotions including love, exhortation, description, etc., but among them, the theme of love is the main theme. Vis and Ramin is one of the most beautiful Persian epic romances written by Fakhruddin Asad Gurgani, which can be examined in various aspects. In this article, the contents of this poem have been examined. By examining its themes in this article, we conclude that Asad Gorgani has used the very best in creating his own themes